Terminology

A

2HB Pencil
A hard black graphite pencil used in draping and pattern making.
A-Line Dress
A dress silhouette close to the body on top and flares out from the underarm to the hem.
A-Line Silhouette
Silhouette that comes in at the waist and flares out at the hem.
A-Line Skirt
A skirt that is close to the body at the waist and flares out at the hem.
Abattoir
A facility where animals are processed for various end uses such as for food and clothing.
Abstract
Nonrepresentational art; art with no object.
Acetate
A crisp hand, high luster fabric made with spun filaments of cellulose fiber made from wood pulp. One hundred percent acetate fabric is not very durable and therefore often mixed with silk, wool, cotton or manufactured fibers such as rayon, nylon, and polyester to make it stronger. Available in various widths, colors and weights, ideal for use as lining material.
Accent
The area of a composition that attracts attention first; it has a strong contrast against the rest of the composition.
Accordion Pleats
Pleats that are smaller at the top and larger at the bottom.
Achromatic Hues
The hues that have no chroma, are not mixtures of chromatic hues, and are not in the spectrum. Black, white and gray are the achromatic hues.
Across Back Shoulder
Back width on a body/dress form, measured from back shoulder point to back shoulder point.
Across Front Shoulder
From right front shoulder point to left front shoulder point on a body/dress form.
Additive hue system
The colors we obtain when mixing together different wavelengths of light.
Adhesive Style Tape
Tape with an adhesive backing used for indicating design style lines on a dress form.
Adirondack/Lumberjack
Rugged looking jacket usually made of wool with front patch pockets, a collar, long sleeves and cuffs.
Adjacent hues
Hues that are next to each other on the color circle, such as yellow and orange.
Adjustable Ring Thimble
An metal thimble with a flat top used with thick needles and can be adjusted to fit any finger size.
Adjustable Tab
Used as a decorative touch or on the sides of pants, skirts, and jackets to allow for fit adjustments.
After-image
When we stare at a hue for a few seconds and then look away, fatigue causes the eye to see the after-image - a ghostly complement of the hue; also known as successive contrast.
Alencon Lace
Sheer lace with corded edge.
All-in-One Facing
A one-piece front and two-piece back facing that clean finishes both the neckline and armhole of a sleeveless and collarless garment.
All-Over Print
A printed fabric with a motif that is repeated across the entire surface of the fabric in a non-directional way.
All-purpose Thread
Thread used for basic garment construction. Both 100 percent mercerized cotton and 100 percent polyester thread are suitable for linen, cotton, silk, wool, blends and manufactured fibers. For all cotton garments a 100 percent spun cotton thread is also suitable.
All-purpose Zipper
Zipper most often used on skirts, pants and dresses. Available in various lengths, colors, zipper teeth types such as nylon coil, metal and plastic. All-purpose zipper parts include: zipper pull, tape, teeth and stopper. Also known as a skirt, pant and dress zipper.
Allergen Barrier Fabric
A specialty fabric made from breathable polyester microfiber, acts as a moisture and allergen-barrier and is used in active and performancewear as a garment lining, underlining or interlining.
Alternating Pins
A technique used in draping to secure muslin guidelines to the dress form.
Analogous hues
Hues that are near each other on the color circle, and that share at least one primary hue. For example – red and violet, which share red.
Aniline Skins
Animal skins without any sprayed-on finishes.
Ankle
Joint connecting the foot and the leg.
Annotate
Notes made on pattern pieces that identify each part of a garment pattern, such as the name of the part, any grainlines, the size of the garment, how many pieces need to be cut, whether the piece requires interfacing, or any other relevant information.
Anorak
A type of rugged pullover outerwear jacket with a drawstring hip and hood.
Apex
The fullest part of the bust.
Appliqué
Applied fabric to a garment that is either hand stitched, embroidered or machine stitched to a garment.
Appliqué Needle
A hand sewing needle with a round eye, sharp point, and the same diameter as sharps needles. However appliqué needles are only available in sizes 9, 10 and 12 and are used primarily for appliqué and patch work.
Arm Length
Measured from either center back to the wrist or from the shoulder to the wrist.
Armhole
The section of a garment through which the arm passes through or where a sleeve is fitted.
Armhole Dart
Bust dart emanates from the armhole and vanishes to within 1/2" (1.3cm) of the apex.
Armhole Dart Bodice
A bodice where the dart emanates from the armhole to the apex.
Armhole Depth
Measurement taken from the shoulder/armhole intersection down to the armhole side seam intersection.
Armhole Ridge
Area on the dress form where the shoulder seam and the natural armhole intersect.
Armplate
Metal plate on the dress form covering the arm socket.
Armscye
The circumference measurement of the armhole.
Ascot
Wide necktie worn looped over with ends cut diagonally and held in place by scarf pin.
ASTM
An organization founded in 1898 as the American Section of the International Association of Testing and Materials. In 1902 the American section of the organization was renamed the American Society for Testing and Materials and by 1941 began publishing international garment sizing and measurement-taking standards.
Asymmetric
The principle of informal balance, rather than formal balance, with each side of the garment offering a different silhouette.
Asymmetrical
Any neckline which appears different on either side of center front, or closes to one side of center front of blouse or shirt.
Asymmetry
A lack of equality of shapes, colors and lines on either side of a center line or point.
Athletic Mesh
A nylon or polyester jersey knit with an open mesh-like appearance used in activewear and can also be used as garment lining.
Atmospheric
A quality of a color that makes it seem to have depth, like the sky.
Awl
Tool used to pinch holes into fabric or paper.

B

Back Balance Guideline
A guideline used in draping that is at a right angle to both the center back and the shoulder blade level, to help balance the back drape of a bodice, torso or dress sloper.
Background
The area behind the object in a composition; the ground or field.
Backing
Material used to add support to the underside of a fabric or other material. Can be fused or stitched into place.
Back Length
Measurement from center back/neckline intersection to the waist or to the hem, on a body/dress form.
Back Neck Dart
Back dart positioned at the back neckline, mid-way between center back and the shoulder seam and angled towards the top of the back waistline or dart/princess seam.
Back Shoulder Dart
Back dart positioned mid-way on the back shoulder seam and angled towards the top of the back waistline dart or back princess seam.
Backstitch
Reverse stitch used to reinforce a seam or other area of a garment.
Back Width
Fullest part of the back on a body/dress form, from side seam (breakpoint) to side seam (breakpoint)
Balance
The organization of a composition (the arrangement of the colors, lines and shapes) on either side of the center line.
Balance Guideline
Mark or marks that are made on muslin to help control the grainlines during the draping process.
Ballet
Soft low kid shoe with thin sole and flat heel, sometimes made with drawstring throat. Inspired by shoe worn by ballet dancers.
Ballpoint Needle
Hand and sewing needles with a rounded ball tip for working with knits. Sizes from 5-10.
Balmacaan
Raglan-sleeved, loose-fitting style coat with small turned-down collar which buttons up front to neck.
Bamboo
Regenerated cellulose fiber produced from bamboo pulp, used to make bamboo fabric blends and knitting yarn.
Band
Collar which stands up around neck and buttons. May also be turned down in either front or back, to form two distinct types of collars.
Band Collar
Narrow band collar, usually between 3/4"-1 1/2" wide. When the front ends of the collar are rounded, it is known as a Mandarin or a Nehru collar.
Bandeau
A strapless top that covers the bust ending at the waist or sometimes right under the bust.
Barriers
Design elements, such as low value colors, that form a barrier preventing the eye from moving past them. They may surround a focal point, or be aligned with the edge of the composition.
Bar Tack
Stitch that reinforces areas of stress on a garment such as the end of a pocket, They can be made by hand, using a zigzag setting on a sewing machine or with a special bar tack machine.
Barn Jacket
Hip length outerwear jacket , with low patch pockets and contrast or leather collar.
Baseball Jacket
A blouson, long sleeved jacket with a rib collar and cuffs.
Basting
Temporary stitches made either by hand or machine until they can be made permanent.
Bateau Neckline
Neckline that sits away from the neckline and forms a line from shoulder to shoulder. Also known as a Boat Neck.
Batiste
A sheer, fine, combed cotton, plain weave fabric. Often used as an interfacing for light to medium-weight fabrics.
Beading Needle
Long fine needle with narrow eye so it can beads and sequins can pass through. Sizes range from 5-15.
Beeswax
Cake of wax used during hand-sewing that aids the stitching process when thread is passed through it.
Bell Bottoms
Pants that are fitted through the leg and flare out at the hem.
Bell Sleeve
Sleeve that is set into normal armhole, is narrow at the top and flares wider at the hem.
Bellboy Jacket
Waist-length jacket with standing collar, two rows of brass or dyed to match buttons on front.
Bellows/Safari Pocket
Outside pocket made with center box pleat or inverted pleat that expands when pocket is used.
Belt Loops
Strip of fabric stitched onto a garment to hold a belt in place.
Bemberg Cupramonium Rayon
A lining material made from rayon cellulose filament fiber derived from cotton linter and made using the curpamonium process. Due to high manufacturing costs and the impact that this process has had on the environment, fabric made from this yarn is no longer manufactured in the U.S.
Bermuda Shorts
Shorts that stop above the knee.
Bertha
Wide flat collar designed to accent a woman's shoulders.
Besom Pocket
Tailoring term for an inset pocket on a man's suit jacket made with a narrow welted edge above the pocket opening. It is a double-besom pocket if both edges have welts.
Bespoke
Refers to a made-to-measure garment.
Betweens Needles
Also known as quilting needles. Betweens are shorter than sharps and have a small rounded eye for making fine stitches on medium heavyweight fabrics. They are mostly used in tailoring and quilting.
Bias Binding/Bias Tape
Cloth fabric cut on the bias and offered by the yard in single folded or double folded. Used to bind seams and hems or other edges of a garment.
Bias Cowl Dress
Fitted dress, cut on bias grain, forming a draped collar in front.
Bias Facing
Facing cut on diagonal or bias grain resulting in a softer roll line.
Bias Grain
The diagonal grain of a fabric that has the most stretch.
Bias Strip
Strip of fabric cut on the bias and can be used to make loops, encase a raw edge, inserted in a seam for control purposes, or any other use.
Bias Tape
A by-the-yard bias tape used to bind seams, necklines, armholes, pockets, hems or other areas of a garment where a clean finish is desired. Available in a variety of widths, either single-fold or double-fold.
Bicep
Fullest part of the upper arm area between the elbow and the shoulder.
Bicep Line
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the bicep.
Bicep Circumference
Circumference of the bicep area of the upper arm.
Bicycle Shorts
Tight fitting shorts stopping above the knee made out of stretch fabric.
Bifurcated Form
Dress form that is inclusive of legs. Available neck-to-thigh, neck-to-ankle or waist-to-ankle.
Bifurcated Dress Form
Neck to ankle dress form.
Bikini
Two piece skimpy swimsuit.
Bishop Sleeve
Sleeve that is full at the bottom and usually gathered into a cuff or band.
BL
Acronym for bust level.
Blanket Stitch
Hand-stitch used as an embellishment on the edges of jackets, coats, sleeves, pockets or any part of a garment that requires a decorative touch.
Blazer
Traditional type of jacket with a notch collar.
Bleeding
When dye migrates from one material onto another.
Blend
Process of joining lines to form a smooth line or curve.
Blind Stitch
Small machine or hand stitch used on hems. The thread is hidden in the fold so that the stitches are not visible.
Blocking
Process of manipulating muslin or other fabric so that the length and cross grain are at right angles to each other.
Blouse
Bodice garment that extends to above the hip.
Blouson
Type of design detail where fullness is gathered into a band such as on a blouse hem or at the bottom of a skirt or dress hem.
Blue Pencil
Blue-colored lead pencil used in draping and pattern making for making corrections and adjustments.
Boat Neckline
Neckline that sits away from the neck and forms a line from shoulder to shoulder.
Bobbinet
Cotton tulle fabric used on corselets to add support and structure.
Bodice
Bodice silhouette that is fitted to the body, has shoulder and waist darts and ends at the waistline. It is used as a basic pattern sloper or can also be stylized.
Bodice Sloper
Silhouette that is fitted to the body, has shoulder and waist darts and ends at the hipline. It is used as a basic pattern sloper or can also be stylized.
Bodkin
Long, thick ballpoint needle with an elongated eye used for threading elastic, ribbon or tape through casings and other openings.
Bodysuit/Leotard
Tight fitting stretch garment that sometimes has a snap crotch opening.
Bolero Jacket
Jacket that sits at or above the waist and is usually collarless.
Bond Paper
White paper used for fashion drawing.
Boned Bodice
A bodice where boning or stays are used to create structure.
Bonded Thread Finish
Thread with an applied resin that is added once multiple ends of yarn have been together, prior to the final winding step. The result is a very strong thread.
Boning
By-the-yard plastic material inserted into the seams of bustiers, corsets, bodices or any part of a garment where a structured look is desired.
Bound Seam
A seam that is encased with a either a fabric strip, tape or a bias binding.
Bow Tie
Man's tie, square-cut or with shaped ends, tied in a bow under the chin.
Box Pleats
Type of pleating that forms small boxes beginning at the waist around the width of a garment.
Boxer Shorts
Women's and children's loose-legged panties of pull-on type.
Boxer/Trunks
Loose-legged panties of pull-on type
Boxy Torso Sloper
Silhouette that ends at the end of the torso and sits away from the body, not fitted.
Break Point/Break line
Point on a garment where the lapel turns back and where the closure is placed, such as on a notched collar jacket.
Breathing room
The empty space that can surround an object in a composition, and allow it to remain unobstructed and easy to see. Some elements need a substantial amount of breathing room around them, or else they seem crushed, cramped or overwhelmingly large for the area.
Bridle
Tape used on the lapel roll line of a jacket.
Brief/Panty
Women's or girl's very short panties sometimes made of control stretch fabric with garters added.
Briefcase
Handbag for woman executive which is of briefcase size and features small outside pockets for purse items
Brightness
The lightness or darkness of a color. A light color has brightness.
Brilliance
The intensity or saturation of a color; a measure of grayness of a color; chroma. Grayness is created by adding gray, black, white or the complement to a color. A high intensity color has brilliance.
Broadcloth
A fine closely woven plain weave fabric, originally made from wool but popular today as a cotton or cotton blend. It can be used as an interfacing for medium-weight fabrics.
Broken Hues
Also known as intermediary hues, they have been mixed with gray, black or white; two complementary hues can also make a broken hue.
Brown Paper
Medium to heavy-weight paper used when ironing the right and wrong side of a garment during the construction process. It can be used underneath seams to prevent seams edges from leaving an impression on the right side of a garment and for pressing leather, faux leather and vinyl material.
Brush Tip Technique
A brush stroke technique used in fashion illustration whereby only the tip of the brush is utilized while illustrating.
Buckle
Closure usually made of metal or plastic used to close a garment.
Buckram
Coarse, stiff, plain, open weave fabric coated with either a resin or starch, used primarily as a underlining stiffener to add shape and structure to a garment. Available in cotton, cotton blends and linen and from light to heavy weight qualities.
Buckskin
Leather that has been tanned from a deer skin.
Bustier
Tight-fitting strapless bodice garment usually with bones inserted into the seams for added structure.
Buffalo
Leather skin tanned from a buffalo hide.
Built-Up Shoulder
Garment that has extra padding on the shoulder.
Bust Dart
Dart that ends at the apex and emanates from either the neck, shoulder, side seam or from center front.
Bust Ease
The amount of ease that is needed between the left and right apex points. When draping, the area between the right and left apex points is never pinned to the dress form.
Bust Form
Neck to waist dress form with bust cup demarcations.
Bust Guideline
A vertical guideline used in draping that begins at the apex, is a right angle to both the center front and the bust level and whose function is to help balance the front drape of a bodice, torso or dress sloper and becomes the center of the waist bust dart.
Bustier
Tight-fitting strapless garment usually with bones in the seams for added structure.
Bustle
Silhouette with a protuberance on the back that extends from the waist to the hip or to the hem.
Bustline
A horizontal line at the apex, or fullest part of the bust, that is parallel to the floor.
Button
Decorative ornament used as a trimming or as a functional fastener. Usually made with holes punched in center or a shank on the back, made to slip through a buttonhole or loop.
Button Composition
Most common materials that buttons are made from natural materials such as: bone, glass, nut, leather, pearl, shell, wood, metal, rubber and jet, as well as synthetic materials including nylon, melamine, polyester and urea.
Button-Down
Button and buttonhole used on the edge of a collar.
Button Extension
Amount of space that is needed when planning a button closure.
Button Gauge
Device used to measure the button size/diameter in ligne and metric conversion. Types include: button card template and button gauge slider.
Button Loop
Thin strip of fabric stitched onto a garment as a closure for a button.
Button Loop
Button loop closure made of thread, cord or bias or non-bias fabric tubing.
Button Placket
Strip of fabric stitched onto a garment either as a finishing detail or as support for buttons and buttonholes.
Buttonhole
Hole in which a button passes through to close a garment.
Buttonhole Attachment
A special foot attachment for home-sewing machines for making buttonholes.
Buttonhole Chisel
A tool used in combination with a rubber mat, to open buttonholes.
Buttonhole Foot
Sewing machine attachment used to make buttonholes.
Buttonhole Machine
An industrial specialty machine specific for making buttonholes of different sizes. Buttonhole machines are also equipped with cutting knives that automatically cut open the buttonhole once it is stitched.
Buttonhole Shapes
Types of buttonhole shapes: Straight (most commonly used), rounded (used on light weight/delicate fabrics), keyhole (used for medium to heavy weight fabrics) and bound (used on tailord garments).
Buttonhole Twist
Heavy silk thread used in tailoring and to make handmade buttonholes.
Button Reinforcement
A clear plastic button used on the underside of a garment to help reinforce the outer shell button. These buttons are offered as 2-hole or 4-hole. Another type of button reinforement are those made of felt and are used on the collar of men's dress shirts.
Button Reinforcement
Used to secure sewn buttons on the underside of a garment to prevent fabric tear and to further secure the button. Reinforcement choices are very small flat buttons and small circular pieces of cotton felt.
Button Shapes
Types of button shapes: flat, rimmed, domed, half ball, full ball, tubular, triangular, square and specialty shapes: French bevel, shank, fisheye, slotted well, English rim and double dome.
By-the-Yard
Term used to describe any type of material, trim or embellishment that is sold by-the- yard or meter, such as wigan, ribbon, seam tape, bias binding, etc.

 

C

Cable Cord
By the yard cotton rope used as filler to make cording or piping. Available in sizes ranging from 1/8" -1"in diameter.
Caftan
A floor length, long-bell sleeved garment with a slit neck, based off of North African and Middle Eastern robes worn by men.
Cage
Metal wire portion of a dress form below the torso.
Calf
Fullest part of the leg between the knee and the ankle.
Calibration
An adjustment of two color-producing devices to help them communicate with each other and produce the same color. For example, a printer and a monitor can be calibrated.
Camisole/Cami
V-neck or scooped neck top with straps.
Camouflage
A decoration on objects to make them blend in with the background.
Cap Height
Vertical measurement from the bicep line to the shoulder/armhole intersection. The length of the bicep to the cap of the sleeve.
Cap Notches
Marks indicating the upper portion of a sleeve. One notch denotes the front sleeve cap, 2 notches spaced 1/4" (6mm) apart denotes the back sleeve cap.
Cap Sleeve
Short sleeve ending at or above the bicep with little to no cap ease.
Cape
Garment the covers the body, usually sleeveless though having holds for the arms, worn as a coat.
Capline
Top of the vertical line that measures the bicep to the shoulder/armhole intersection of a sleeve.
Capri/Pedal Pushers/Clam Diggers
Tight-fitting three-quarter length pants, usually with short slit on the outside leg.
Care Instructions
A permanent label or tag affixed to a garment containing care information and instructions for that garment. Care instructions are based on what the outer and inner fabric and trim are made from and must be affixed in such a manner that they will: not become separated from the product, will remain legible during the useful life of the product and provide warnings if the garment cannot be cleaned without harm. Some examples of care instructions are: machine washable, hand wash only, do not bleach, dryclean only, do not iron, line dry and tumble dry. They are often listed as graphic symbols on the care label.
Cardigan
Collarless jacket ending at or slightly below the waist.
Cargo Pocket
Large batch pocket, usually used on shorts and pants.
Carpenter Pants
Pants with extra pockets and a loop on the side leg to hold a hammer tool.
Cashmere
A soft, fine, downy fabric produced from the wool undergrowth of the cashmere goat. Available in blends and used as fabric for jackets and coats and kitted garments.
Casing
Tunnel made of fabric through which a belt or elastic is encased.
Cat Suit
Skin tight, one piece garment, usually ankle length and with long sleeves.
Catchstitch
Hand-hemming stitch resembling a cross-stitch pattern with a series of back stitches starting from left to right, alternating on the body and then the hem.
CB
Acronym for center back of the body/dress form
Center Back
Vertical line denoting the center of the back of a garment.
Center Front
Vertical line denoting the center of the front of a garment.
Centered Zipper
Zipper set with an even amount of fabric on each side of the zipper and where the zipper teeth are not exposed. It is the most popular zipper application, commonly used on dresses, pants and skirts.
Centerline
A line that denotes the center of a pattern or drape. For example, the center of a sleeve or center front or center back of a garment. On a sketch it indicates the plum line.
CF
Acronym for center front of the body/dress form
Chain Stitch Hem
A hem finish consisting of a series of looped stitches that form a chain-like pattern on one side of the fabric and a straight stitch effect on the other side. A chain stitch hem finish is most often used on knit fabrics or on the hem of jeans. It is sewn using a chainstitch machine or a home-sewing machine that has a chainstitch setting or attachment.
Chain Stitch Machine
A sewing machine that produces a series of looped stitches to form a chain-like pattern on one side and a straight stitch effect. Industrial chainstitch machines are available as single-needle machines used for embroidery, sewing knits and lightweight wovens and as double-needle machines, best suited for lap seaming jeans, denim jackets, work uniforms and heavy weight materials. In the domestic sewing machine market, stand alone overlock and coverstitch machines, as well as some lockstitch machines offer a chain stitch capability.
Chain Stitch Seam
A seam finish consisting of a series of looped stitches that form a chain-like pattern on one side of the fabric and a single lockstitch effect on the other side. A chainstitch seam finish is most often used on knit fabrics and sewn using a chainstitch machine or a home-sewing machine that has a chainstitch setting or attachment.
Chantilly Lace
Delicate net-like lace with a scalloped edge.
Chantilly Lace
A fine, delicate net bobbin lace with motifs characteristic of flowers, branches and scrolls, that are outlined with a heavier cordonnet yarn. Available in cotton, silk, linen and manufactured fibers, different widths and colors, some with a scalloped edge border.
Charmeuse
A light weight, soft ,drapey fabric with a semi-lustrous satin face with a dull back. Available in different colors, widths, weights and fibers, such as silk, and manufactured fibers. Silk charmeuse weight is referred to as momme, the higher the mommes the heavier the fabric. It is an appproriate choice as lining material.
Check Fabric
Fabric with vertical and horizontal lines that cross each other to form squares.
Chemise/Shift
Straight-cut dress with few darts and no waistline.
Chenille Needle
A hand sewing needle that is similar to tapestry needles in that they have elongated eyes and the same length and diameter, however, unlike tapestry needles, chenille needles have a very sharp point. They are used in crewel work and ribbon embroidery, and are available in sizes 13-26.
Cheongsam/Qui Pao
A silhouette that references a Chinese-styled dress, made with mandarin collar, short sleeves, and a long slit on one or both sides of the skirt.
Chest Width
On a men's body or form, the widest part/circumference of the upper body.
Chesterfield Coat
Semi-fitted, straight-cut classic man's or woman's overcoat in single or double breasted style, usually with a black velvet collar.
Chevron Pattern
A pattern that is the the form of an inverted V-shape.
Chiaroscuro
A technique in art that uses variations of highlights and shadows to achieve a 3-dimensional effect.
Chiffon
A very light, sheer, plain weave fabric in a fine, hard spun yarn of silk or manufactured fibers, with a dull finish and somewhat stiff hand.
Child color
In transparency, the child color is created from the two parent colors that are mixed together.
China Silk
A soft, lustrous, lightweight, plain weave silk fabric availble in different colors, widths and weights. The unit of weight for silk fabrics is expressed in terms momme. One momme is equal to 4.340 grams per square meter; 8 mommes is approximately 1 ounce per square yard or 35 grams per square meter.
Chroma
The intensity or brilliance of a color; chroma is the opposite of grayness.
Chromatic Hues
Chromatic hues include the spectral hues and their mixtures. If these hues are mixed with achromatic hues, they still are chromatic hues. Only black, white and gray are not chromatic hues, because they have no chroma.
Cinch
Waistline or area that is pulled in very tightly, usually with a wide tie belt.
Circle Skirt
Skirt whose hem circumference forms a circle.
Circumference
Distance measurement around a particular area, such as the circumference of a waistline, bicep, wrist or hip.
CL
Acronym for crotch level.
Clapper
A wooden block tool with an open handle, that is used in tailoring to flatten seams and other bulky areas of a garment. It is also used in quilting.
Clean Finish
Refers to any method used to finish the edge of an area of a garment such as facings, hems, etc.
Clear Plastic Ruler
Ruler marked with inches or centimeters on clear plastic used in draping, patternmaking, sewing and art so that underneath lines and markings are visible.
Clip
To snip into as in clipping into seam allowance to release a curved seam.
Clippers
Small spring-loaded scissors used to open stitches, seams and assorted other uses in sewing and draping.
Clog
Shoe made with thick sole of wood or cork and the upper is made of leather, cloth, or faux leather.
Closure
The Gestalt principle of perception whereby we perceive a whole shape even when it is missing some edges.
Closures
Any type of garment closure such as buttons, frogs, snaps, clips, toggles, buckles, D-ring, loop and button, Velcro, lacing or zipper.
Coachman Coat
Double-breasted coat with large, wide lapels, fitted waistline, and flared skirt. Frequently has a cape collar and brass buttons.
Coatdress
Style of dress that mimics a coat.
Cocoon Coat
Wrap coat with rounded shoulders and deep batwing sleeve.
Cold Tape
By-the-yard tape with an adhesive back used on leather and suede garments to add support in stress areas such as at the crotch, the armhole and along the zipper as well as other parts of a garment.
Collapsible Hip
Attachment on a bifurcated dress form that enables the hip to collapse so pants can easily be glided onto the form.
Collar Fall
Area from the collar roll to the collar's edge.
Color
The result of a combination of a hue, a value and a level of intensity.
Color circle
An illustration of all spectral hues, placed in a circle, with the longest wave hue (red) meeting the shortest wave hue (violet).
Color space
All the colors that a color-producing device (such as a monitor or a printer) can make.
Color management system
In software, a way of translating the light-based RGB profile of the computer monitor to the pigment-based CMYK profile of printing.
Color Relationship
Colors relationships are defined by their distance from each other on the color circle; for example, color relationships include complements and triads.
Compass
A technical drawing device that can be used for drawing circles or arcs.
Complement
The hue opposite another hue on the color circle. For example, red is the complement of green.
Composition (2-dimensional)
The arrangement of colors, lines and shapes on a 2-dimensional surface that are intended to be a work of design.
Concave
A curve shaped like part of the interior of a circle.
Concave Curve
Curve that goes in, not out.
Cone
A cone-shaped spool on which thread is wound. How it is packaged is known as a 'put-up'. Thread spools are cross-wound, forming an 'X' pattern. Cross-wound thread cones are used on a sewing machine's vertical spindle, allowing the thread to easily reel off the top. They are also used on overlock, chainstitch and coverstitch machines since they can hold more thread than a spool or cop.
Cones
Photoreceptors in our retinas that allow us to see color. There are three different types of cones, each of which can absorb one of the three primary hues of light.
Contour Dart
Dart with shape: curved, convex, concave or fisheye.
Contrast
The effect that one color, line or shape has on another due to their differences. Their placement near each other would allow comparison and intensify their particular properties.
Continuity
The visual path or process of moving through the composition.
Convertible Collar
A rolled collar that converts two ways, meeting at center front or open, creating a notch collar effect.
Convex
A curve shaped like part of the exterior of a circle.
Convex Curve
Curve that out and not in.
Cop
A spindle of thread that is cross-wound forming an 'X' pattern. How it is packaged is known as a 'put-up'. Cop thread can be used on a sewing machine's vertical spindle or on a horizontal spindle using a spool cap.
Corduroy
A strong, durable napped fabric with vertical-cut pile line stripes.
Core Spun Thread
A thread with a core of polyester filament covered with cotton or polyester staple fibers. It is the most costly thread and used on for fabrics that have a finish or a tendency to pucker.
Corselets
Inner structure of a dress that adds shape and support.
Corset
Type of woman's stiffened undergarment with boning and/or stays, laced in front or back.
Cossack
Blouse or tunic silhouette with full sleeves with small cuff and a stand collar.
Cotton Canvas
A medium- to heavyweight durable plain weave cotton fabric. Often used for making jacket and coat toiles.
Cotton Count System
Part of the thread sizing 'fixed-weight system' referring to the amount of thread required to weigh a specific amount. The 'cotton count system' uses the fixed weight of one pound. The length in yards is the variable used to determine the size of the thread. A length of a hank of yarn as a unit of measurement with one hank equivalent to 840 yards. The numbering system is expressed in a 2 part format: for example, 50/2. The first number refers to the the number of 840 yard hanks, the second number refers to the number of plies. A cotton count described as 50/2 on a thread spool, is 2 plies divided by 50 hanks or, a size thread of 25. The higher the thread size number the finer the thread. On a thread spool it is listed in parentheses as: Ne., NeC, NeB, C Ne.
Cotton Fabrics
Fabric made from cotton bolls derived from the cotton plant and spun into yarn. Cotton and cotton blended fabrics are available in plain, twill and satin weaves. Cotton fabric is the preferred choice for all types of woven and knitted clothing.
Cotton Voile
A light-weight sheer fabric made of hard twist cotton yarns in low count plain weave. Also available in silk, rayon, acetate, worsted and blends. It is often used as an interfacing for light-weight fabrics.
Couching
Invisible stitching technique used to secure braid, ribbon or other passementerie in a decorative pattern to the surface of a fabric.
Course
Describes the crosswise row of stitches on a plain stitch or basic knit fabric.
Couture
Made-to-measure high-end clothing. Couturier refers to a male designer, couturiere a female dressmaker or designer.
Coverstitch
Type of hem or seam finish consisting of a series of looped stitches forming a chain-like pattern on one side of the fabric and a 2-needle lockstitch effect on the other side. A coverstitch finish is primarily used on knit fabrics and best when sewn using a coverstitch machine however, a home-sewing machine with a coverstitch setting and a twin-needle capability can simulate a coverstitch hem or seam finish.
Cowl
Draped folds forming a soft stylized neckline or collar.
Cowl Neck Back
Draped folds forming a stylized neckline on the back of a garment, usually cut on bias grain.
Cowl Neck Blouse
Blouse with a draped cowl neckline cut on bias.
Cowl Neck Front
Draped folds forming a stylized neckline on the front of a garment, usually cut on bias grain.
Cowl Sleeve
Draped folds forming a stylized effect, usually cut on bias grain, on the top of a sleeve.
Cowl Yoke
Inset piece or yoke that is usually cut on bias grain, forming a draped cowl effect.
Crackstitch
A machine stitch positioned on the lower side of a seam, as close to the seam as possible, to hold down another area of the garment such as underneath the right side of waistband, a binding or when making a Hong Kong bound finish. Also known as 'stitch-in-the-ditch'.
Crease
Technique used to form a fold or a line such as, down the middle on the front of trousers, or in patternmaking to help fold the paper, or in draping to form a mark on the fabric.
Creaseline
Line formed when folding a pattern over to form a crease.
Crepe de Chine
A lightweight, densely woven, plain weave silk fabric, woven with a silk warp and a crepe twist filling. Available in different colors and widths. Silk weight is expressed in terms momme. One momme is equal to 4.340 grams per square meter; 8 mommes is approximately 1 ounce per square yard or 35 grams per square meter. The higher the mommes the heavier the weight. Polyester and micro-fiber versions are also available.
Crewel Needles
Also known as embroidery needles. Crewel needles have a longer eye for threading multiple strands of thread but otherwise are identical to sharps.
Crimping
A machine stitch that eases fabric into an area of a seam.
Cropped
When the length on a garment, or part of a garment is shortened.
Croquis Figure
Refers to a rough sketch in fashion drawing.
Cross Grain/Crosswise Grain
Grain that goes from selvage to selvage, also known as the weft. Ways to identify muslin cross grain are: 1) perpendicular to length or warp grain, 2) has some stretch to it but not as much as bias grain 3) fuzzier yarn with more slubs than length grain and 4) when folded will not lay flat as length grain, but will be a bit bouncy.
Crossmarks
Marks made when draping that indicate an intersection such as at the side seam/underarm, the shoulder/armhole or any place where 2 lines intersect.
Cross-Wound
Thread that is wound on a spindle, forming an 'X' pattern such as on cop, cone or vicone thread 'put-ups'. It is used on a sewing machine's vertical thread holder allowing the thread to reel off the top, or on a horizontal thread holder with a spool cap.
Crotch
Part of the human body where the legs join the torso.
Crotch Depth
Distance from waist to crotch level plus desired ease.
Crotch Extension
Area on a trouser pattern where the crotch measurement extends from center front and center back.
Crotch Length
Combined measurement on the front and back crotch seamlines taken from front waist to back waist.
Crotch Level
Area on a pattern measured from waist to where the crotch starts.
Crotch Line
Horizontal line at the position of the crotch.
Crystal Pleating
Type of mini pleats seen on dresses, skirts or other areas of a garment.
Cuff
Band that ends the bottom of a sleeve or a detail on the bottom of pants or shorts that turns up over itself.
Culottes
Knee length pants with inverted pleats on center front and back to give a skirt-like look.
Cummerbund
Sash-like waist wrapping, often pleated to add a decorative touch.
Cupramonium Rayon
A rayon cellulose filament fiber derived from cotton linter and made using the curpamonium process. Due to high manufacturing costs and the impact that this process has had on the environment, fabric made from this yarn is no longer manufactured in the U.S.. It is known as Bemberg and used as a lining material.
Cup & Fold Method
In patternmaking and draping, when you cup the paper or fabric to make it easier to true the dart.
Curvilinear
The curvy quality of lines or shapes.
Cut-Away Armhole
A stylized sleeveless armhole that is recessed in from the natural amhole.
Cut Lines
Where seamlines are placed on a garment for a better leather yield.
Cutting Line
In patternmaking and draping the cutting line refers to the outside line of the seam allowance on a pattern and the stitching line on a sloper.
Cutting Mat
Rubber self-healing cutting mat used in patternmaking or for cutting fabric with a rotary blade cutter.

D

Darning Needles
Hand-sewing needles primarily used for mending and for basting layered fabrics together. They are offered as short darners, long darners, and yarn darners, in sizes ranging from 1 to 9.
Dart
Term for a v-shaped stitched tuck that is used to create shape in a garment.
Dart Direction
The direction in which the dart intake is positioned. On front and back vertical darts, the dart intake should point in the direction of center. For horizontal darts , the dart intake points in a downward direction.
Dart Intake
Amount of dart material inside a dart's stitching lines.
Dart Legs
The length of a dart, from start to vanishing point.
Dart Length
The length of a dart, from start to vanishing point.
Dart Manipulation
Concept of how to move darts to different areas on the body.
Dart Pickup
The amount of dart material or dart intake formed in the draping and pattern making process.
Dart Shape
Shape of a dart, concave, convex, fisheye, straight or curved.
Dart Size
Width and length of the dart pick-up.
Dash
A mark of about 1/4" long made on a draped muslin indicating areas of the garment such as the front and back waistline, dart pick-up and hemlines.
Delivered cost
The purchase price as it appears on the invoice plus transportation costs incurred
Denier System
A system originated in France for measuring the weight or linear density of thread. It is commonly used for filament fibers. For example, a single strand of silk is approximately one denier; a 9000-meter strand of silk weighs about one gram.
Detachable Arm
Dress form attachment for fitting sleeves.
Detachable Head
Attachment on a dress form that assists when draping and fitting hoods.
Detachable Left Leg
Attachment on a bifurcated dress form that makes it easier to drape and fit pants and shorts.
Detachable Shoulder Cap
Dress form attachment used for draping armholes and fitting sleeves.
Dhoti Pants
Pant silhouette that is gathered at the waist with an elongated crotch, tapering at the ankle.
Diagonal Basting
Hand-basting stitch, stitched on a diagonal angle, used to control fabric layers during the garment construction and pressing process.
Diagonal Pinning
Pinning seams at a 45° angle when draping or sewing to help the seams lay flat.
Diameter
The width of a circle such as the diameter of a button.
Differentiation
Making a product stand out from the competition in some way, either because of its physical appearance, or through the benefits that it offers to the customer.
Direction
The orientation of a line or shape in a composition. The direction can be horizontal, vertical or diagonal.
Direct Pinnable Dress Form
A dress form that is a full scale replica of a human body, constructed so that pins can be directly inserted into the form and used for draping and fitting clothing.
Dirndl Skirt
Skirt style where fabric is gathered into a waistband or a yoke.
Direct Operating Expenses
Related to department expenses. It usually includes such expenses as sales, personnel salaries, selling supplies, travel for buying staff, and advertising expenditures for the department.
Discount
Represents a percentage reduction in the billed cost of merchandise offered by the vendor to a buyer.
Ditch Quilting Machine Foot
A sewing machine attachment that is used to 'stitch-in-the-ditch.' A stitch positioned on the lower side of a seam, as close to the seam as possible, to hold down another area of the garment such as underneath the right side of waistband, a binding or when making a Hong Kong bound finish. It is also used in quilting.
Dividend
A number to be divided by another number.
Divisor
A number by which another number, the dividend, is divided.
DMC Embroidery Cotton
A double mercerized Egyptian cotton embroidery floss with a high sheen, made up of 6 strands of thread. The strands can be easily separated to customize the desired effect of a project. DMC embroidery floss is is 100% color fast and fade resistant and available in a wide variety of colors.
Doc Martens
Popular iconic workboot with air-cushioned soles made popular in the 1960s.
Doll Needles
Hand-sewing needles used for doll-making, soft sculpture and sewing upholstery. They measure 3" (7.6cm) long and have a long eye.
Domestic Sewing Machine
A home sewing machine. In addition to sewing a lockstitch, many domestic machines are equipped with computerized sewing functions and settings, such as zigzag and embroidery stitching, buttonhole-making, chainstitching, coverstitching and serging.
Dominant
The element that has the greatest influence on a composition is said to be dominant. Dominance can exist in color, line, shape or size of area. The second most influential element would be called sub-dominant, secondary or subordinate.
Dorcas Pins
A brand of iconic pins and needles, sold in a blue tin, and manufactured in Birmingham, England by D.F. Tayler & Co.,Ltd. from 1880, until the company became affiliated with Newey Bros. Ltd in 1949. They are sold under the trademark 'Dorcas' or 'Newey Dorcas.' The pins and needles and made from hardened and tempered nickel-plated steel, and therefore are more expensive as a result. Today they are imported from England and the Czech Republic by the Prym Group of Germany.
Dot
Mark used in draping to indicate areas such as the waistline, neckline, side sea, armhole and hem.
Double-face Wool
Two layers of wool fabric, bonded together, that is made to be reversible, usually in contrasting colors.
Double-Faced Seam
Seam finish used on double-faced fabrics, and a technique used to create beautiful reversible garments.
Double Hiding
When the upper layer of a leather skin separates from the inner layer.
Double-Stitched Seam
Seam finish used on sheer fabrics, where there may be some stress on the seams while keeping the seam allowances minimally visible.
Double-Welt Pocket
A double-welted inset slit pocket used on tailored pants (trousers), jackets, coats and dresses. Also known as a besom pocket.
Draft
A schematic plan made of a garment using the pattern making process before seam allownaces are added. The act of making (drafting) a pattern.
Drafting
The process of drawing the lines and curves from measurements to create a pattern or sloper.
Drawing Compass
A technical drawing device that can be used for drawing circles or arcs.
Drag a Guideline
Term used in draping to locate straight grain when a pencil or pushpin is inserted and dragged along a fabric's grain.
Draping
Process of creating clothing designs by manipulating muslin around a dress form in a three dimensional way resulting in a pattern.
Draping Pins
Straight pins used during the draping process. For draping in muslin, size #17 Dressmaker pins are appropriate and for draping in silk or very lightweight fabrics, a Satin size #17 is a good choice.
Drawstring
A tie inserted into a tunnel or loops either at the waist or on an other area of a garment. When pulled it forms a gathered effect.
Dress Form
A replica of the human body made out of paper mache (more expensive) or out of fiberglass (less expensive) and then covered in cloth so that pins can be sunk into it during the draping and fitting process.
Dress Form Prep
Using style tape to indicate style lines in preparation for draping.
Dress Maker Pins
Medium weight pins made of steel used in sewing, draping and patternmaking.
Dressmaker
Refers to clothes made specifically for women.
Drill
A strong, warp-faced cotton fabric of medium-to heavy weight in a left-hand twill construction. Also used as an interfacing for coats.
Drop Shoulder Blouse
Blouse silhouette where the sleeve cap is moved away from the natural shoulder and the underarm is droppe, creating a more casual look and fit.
Dropped Armhole Sleeve
Relaxed sleeve with little to no cap ease, set into a drop shoulder armhole.
Dropped Waist
Silhouette whereby the natural waist is dropped at or near the hip level.
Duck
Strong, medium- to heavy weight plain weave fabric usually made of cotton or cotton blend. Also used as interfacing in coats.
Duffel
Car coat or a shorter length coat fastened with toggles rather than buttons introduced during WWII and worn by men in British Navy
Dupioni
A tightly-woven plain weave fabric produced with a fine silk yarn in the warp and an uneven double-coocon yarn in the weft, resulting in a slubby, textured and highly lustrous finish. Available in different colors, widths and weights, referred to as momme. The higher the mommes the heavier the fabric. Also known as duopioni, and dupion but not to be confused with silk shantung which has many less slubs.
Dye lot
A batch of dye solution, associated with its color; each batch varies from other batches because of atmospheric differences or qualities of the dye itself.
Dynamic
Energy in a composition that makes the shapes and lines appear to be moving.

E

Ease
Allowing extra measure to the pattern or drape such as at the bust, waist, hip, side seam, sleeve, underarm, crotch, or anywhere else on the pattern so that the garment fits comfortably.
Ease Notch
Marks on patterns that indicate where ease is encapsulated.
Ease Pinch
Adding an extra measure to the drape, usually between 1/8" - 1/4", so that the garment fits comfortably.
Eisenhower Jacket
Waist length, collared, long sleeve jacket made popular by former President Eisenhower.
Elastic
Stretch material sold by the yard.
Elastic Thread
Thread with an elastic core, used in the bobbin, to create gathers, shirring, crimping, and smocking.
Elbow
The joint that connects the forearm with the upper arm.
Elbow Circumference
Total measurement taken around the elbow of the arm.
Elbow Dart
One or 2 darts at the elbow to create a fitted sleeve.
Elbow Line
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the elbow.
Elements of color
Hue, value and intensity are the three factors or elements that make up a color.
Elements of composition
Color, line and shape are the three factors that are used to form a composition.
Embellished Prick-Sitched Zipper
Hand-sewn zipper application with embellishment, such as pearls, adding a decorative touch to a garment.
Embellishment
Any type of ornamention to a garment design, such as appliqué, beading, decorative stiching, embroidery, eyelets, groments, ribbon trim, studs, or other extra decorative detail.
Embroidery Floss
A 6-strand hand-sewing thread that is loosely twisted and slightly glossy. It is available in cotton, silk, linen, and rayon and used primarily for embroidery.
Embroidery Needle
A hand-sewing needle used for embroidery. The needles have a longer eye for threading multiple strands of thread and are also known as crewel needles. They are available in sizes from 1-10.
Embroidery Needles
Also known as crewel needles. Embroidery needles have a longer eye for threading multiple strands of thread but otherwise are identical to sharps.
Embroidery Scissor
Scissors with small, very sharp blades, that are available both straight and curved. They are used for cutting thread, embroidery floss, and for any detailed, precision cutting.
Empire
Dress with high waistline just under the bosom defined by an inserted piece of fabric or a seam.
Empire Line
Horizontal styleline that sits underneath the bust.
Employee Discount
Gives employees of the retailer a percentage reduction on the price of merchandise.
End of Month (EOM) Dating
The cash discount period is computed from the end of the month in which the invoice is dated rather than from the date of the invoice itself (It is counted similarly to extra dating).
Energy
The visual movement in a composition. Energy could be tension, dynamic energy, static energy or passive energy.
Envelope
Large narrow handbag made in the shape of a correspondence envelope, usually of clutch-type without handle.
Epaulet
Tabs that are sewn onto a garment such as on military jackets. Historically to hold a soldier's hat or gloves.
Espadrille
Rope-soled shoe with canvas, leather or faux leather upper. Sometimes they are tied at the ankle.
Even Basting
Simple hand stitch approximately 4-6 stitches per inch used to temporarily hold one or more layers of fabric together.
Exposed Separating Zipper
A zipper where both sides of the zipper separate from the another at the bottom. Types of separating zippers are those that are 'one-way', where the slider separates from the bottom, and a '2-way' with 2 pulls so the zipper can open and close from both ends. These zippers are available in different lengths, teeth types and widths and in a variety of colors. They are used for both functional and decorative purposes on all types of jackets, coats, parkas, dresses, shirts, pants and skirts. A separating exposed zipper is an application in which the zipper teeth/coil are meant to be visible.
Extension
Area on a garment where the button and buttonholes or other closure sit.
Extra Dating
Known as X-dating, is calculated from the date of invoice just like regular dating terms. However, unlike regular dating, extra dating grants a specified number of extra days to take advantage of the cash discount period - a total of 40 days.
Extract Measurements
Taking accurate measurements on a body/dress form, in preparation for draping or pattern drafting.
Extraneous object
An element in a composition that prevents it from being balanced and needs to be removed to achieve balance.

F

Fabric
Yarns that are assembled to be either woven, knitted, felted, braided, netted or bonded together to create material or cloth.
Fabric Hand
A term used to assess the sense of touch and feel of a particular fabric, such as smooth, stiff, soft, drapey, rigid, crisp or pliable.
Fabric Weight
A term used to describe the thickness or thinness of a particular fabric.
Face
Refers to the right side of the fabric.
Face-up
Refers to the right side of a fabric facing in an upward direction.
Facing
Section on a garment used to clean finish that area for example on a neckline, armhole or pocket top.
Faggoting
Decorative open-worked hand stitch resembling a ladder.
Fairgate Knit Rule
A stainless steel rule that assists in determining the stretch percentage knit fabrics using a 5" measurement scale.
Fell Stitch
A hand-stitch used to attach a raw or folded edge to a garment. In tailored garments it is often used to secure seam tape to hymo canvas along the outer edges of a jacket.
Fiber
The basic hair-like strands or filaments from which threads and fabrics are made.
Fiber Content
The fundamental type and amount of fiber composition used in the assembly of textile yarns and fabrics.
Field
The background, or ground, of a 2-dimensional image; the area surrounding the object.
Figure
The object of a composition; not the background.
Filament
A length of yarn that is one continuous length of fiber, such as silk, a natural fiber from a silkworm, and synthetic fibers such as rayon, polyester and nylon.
Fine Cotton Thread
Thread such as a tex size 24 or a thread weight of 60 (60Wt.) used for stitching fine fabrics or for topstitching, such as on a men's or women's dress shirt, sewn with 14 stitches per inch (1.1mm stitch length).
Finger-press
Using your fingers to press an area of the garment flat such as a dart or seam allowance either before or after you have ironed the area.
Fingertip Thimble
An adjustable metal thimble designed specifically for someone with long fingernails.
Fisheye Dart
Curved dart that adds shape to a garment.
Fitted
When a garment sits close to the body.
Fitted Sleeve
Sleeve that has darts at the elbow and is used as a sloper.
Fitted Torso Sloper
Silhouette that is fitted to the body and ends at the bottom of the dress form's torso.
Fitting
Process of checking to see how a muslin or garment fits so that adjustments can be made.
Fixed-length System
A thread sizing system that refers to the weight of a given length of thread, based on either the 'Denier system' or the 'Tex system.' Abbreviations for these systems will usually appear in parentheses on a thread spool as: Denier (Td, d), or Tex (Tex, T). Denier and Tex systems are commonly used for filament fibers. In the denier system, one denier is based on a strand of silk 9,000 meters in length. In the Tex system, a filament is measured by its weight in grams based on a thread 1,000 meters in length. Since the numbers have a direct relationship, the smaller the number, the finer the thread, and the larger the number the heavier the thread.
Fixed-weight System
A thread sizing system that refers to the length of the thread required to weigh a specific amount, measured in units of pounds, ounces or metric grams. The 'fixed-weight system' is broken down into categories: Cotton Count (Ne, NeC, NeB and C Ne), Thread Weight (Wt), Metric Count (Nm) and Metric Ticket (No., No./Tkt., Tkt.). The numbers used for these systems therefore refer to the length, which vary from one thread to the other. Since these systems uses an indirect numbering relationship, the higher the number the finer the thread. So a thread size of 120 is finer than a thread size of 30.
Flange
Type of stitched and open pleat.
Flannel-back Satin
A bonding of cotton flannel and polyester satin, to create a textile used in jackets and coats as lining for warmth.
Flannelette
A lightweight plain weave fabric made of cotton or cotton blend, with a light nap on one side. Can be used as an interlining on jackets and coats.
Flap
Section of a garment that covers a pocket.
Flare
Extending out from a straight or natural line such as on a sleeve or the side seam of a skirt, pant or dress.
Flare Point
The point where a flare originates or is dropped from.
Flared Skirt
Skirt that extends out from a straight line side seam version.
Flared/Straight Grain-Center
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain on center front and center back.
Flared/Straight Grain-Middle
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain in the middle of each front and back panel.
Flared/Straight Grain-Side
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain on the side seams.
Flat
Low heeled, flat shoe. A technical drawing of a garment used in a tech pack, on a spec sheet or in presentation materials such as line sheets and presentation boards.
Flat Brush Technique
A brush stroke used in fashion illustration that utilizes the side of the brush on the paper when adding paint or ink to an area of the illustration.
Flat Collar
Collar with little to no stand around the neck.
Flat Fell Seam
Type of seam finish whereby one seam allowance covers the other. Often used on jeans or seams where extra strength is required.
Flat Pattern
Two dimensional patternmaking technique used to create designs using paper.
Flat Seam
A seam created by abutting two pieces of fabric, edge-to edge with no overlap, and sewing them together with hand or machine stitching that encloses the raw edges.
Flax
One of the oldest cultivated plants used to make yarn and fabric known as linen.
Fleece
Knit fabric made from synthetic yarn or recycled plastic bottles, finished with a thick, heavy, napped surface. Used for outerwear as well as for body linings in jackets and coats. Also means the coat of wool that covers a sheep or a similar animal.
Flex Curve
A flexible measuring device used to measure armholes or other curved areas on a pattern, garment or dress form.
Flounce Hem
Separate ruffled or gathered piece added to the bottom of a garment as a design detail.
Fluted
Rows of tiny pleats in fabric resulting in a 3 dimensional effect.
Fluting
An illusion in a value chart where each gray appears to change value slightly at the borders of its two neighboring values. Fluting, also known as Mach Bands, illustrates how the value of any color makes an adjacent one as different from it as possible.
Fly Shield
Separate extension piece sewn into the zipper opening of a fly front zipper.
Fly-Front Zipper
A zipper treatment commonly used on the front of jeans, trousers and skirts. It is identified by a topstitch in the form of a reversed letter "J".
FOB
Acronym for ‘Free On Board’ referring to transportation costs.
FOB Destination
Vendor pays all transportation costs and owns the merchandise until it arrives at the place designated by the buyer. These terms can also be “FOB Store” or “FOB Buyer’s Warehouse.”
FOB Factory (FOB origin)
Buyer takes title to the merchandise at the point of shipment (the factory). The buyer pays all transportation charges and assumes all risks for the goods while they are in transit.
Focal point
The area of a composition that creates an attraction for the eye, keeping the eye focused on it.
Fold
When a fabric or paper is folded over itself to form an edge.
Fold Line
Place on a pattern where to turn up or under such as at the hem of a garment.
Forecasting
In reference to forecasting color, this refers to trend-spotting companies that determine the colors that will be popular a couple of years in the future. Manufacturers rely on this information to help guide them with their color choices.
Form
A shape that appears to be 3-dimensional in a 2-dimensional composition; a volume.
Form-Fitting
Fitting the body with little to no wearing ease.
Four-Way Stretch
A term given to knit fabric that has at least 100% stretch in both the cross and length directions.
Fray
When raw edges of a fabric start to unravel.
Free-On-Board (FOB)
Vendor has an agreement and obligation to deliver goods to buyer’s designated port where transfer of ownership takes place.
Freight Prepaid
Freight paid by the vendor or the buyer.
French Cuffs
Cuff on a sleeve that is folded over itself and is usually larger than a regular shirt cuff.
French Curve
Tool used to create curved lines in draping and patternmaking.
French Dart
Bust dart emanates from the side seam close to the waistline resulting in a semi fitted shape.
French Loop
A hand-made thread chain that connects layers of fabric together loosely, such as connecting a lining to the body of a jacket at the armhole and at the hem. French loops are also known as French tacks and used to hold a belt in place on a garment.
French Piping
A type of double-folded bias binding used to finish the edge of a sheer or lightweight garment such as on a neckline, armhole, hem or any place where a clean finish is desired.
French Seam
Couture seam finish for sheer fabrics and other lightweight fabrics.
French Tack
A hand-made thread chain that connects layers of fabric together loosely, such as connecting a lining to the body of a jacket at the armhole and at the hem. French tacks are also known as French loops and used to hold a belt in place on a garment.
French Wool
A fine knitted fabric comprised of worsted wool or blend, with elastomeric (spandex/Lycra) yarns, producing a lightweight knit fabric that can be used as an interlining on jackets and coats.
Fringe Edge
Technique of fraying the fabric yarns to create a fringed edge.
Front Balance Guideline
Guideline used in draping that is at a right angle to both the center front and the bust level, to help balance the front drape of a bodice, torso or dress sloper.
Front Dart Guideline
Guideline used in draping that is positioned at the apex and at a right angle to both the center front and the bust level, to help balance the front drape of a bodice, torso or dress and where the center of the front waist dart is located.
Front Extension
Excess material, usually 1" (2.5cm), that is added to center front and back muslin panels. It is then folded back in preparation for pinning the center front/back to the dress form.
Front Length
Measurement from center front/neckline intersection to the waist or to the hem, on a body/dress form.
Full Circle Skirt
A skirt that is fitted at the waist, flares out at the hem, forming a hem sweep of a full circle.
Full Circle Radius Calculations Chart
Chart with waist circumference and radius measurements for drafting a full circle skirt.
Full Skirt
Any skirt made with several widths of fabric, cut in a complete circle, made with many gores or gathered.
Funnel Neck/Built-Up
Type of neckline where the garment is built up at the shoulders and center back creating a close to the neck effect.
Fusible Interfacing
Support material with a press-on adhesive backing that when ironed with pressure onto the wrong side of a fabric, adds structure to that area. Fusible interfacings are available in various weights, colors and woven non woven.

G

Gamut of color
The range of color, such as those that the eye can see, or those that can be produced by a color-producing device.
Garment Bias
Any bias grain that is not necessarily a 45 degree angled bias.
Gather
Compressing fabric into a smaller amount such as when shirring fabric in a dirndl skirt, or as ruffles.
Gaucho Pants
Wide cropped women's pants stopping below the knee mid-calf.
Georgette
A sheer, lightweight plain weave fabric with a fine crepe surface and a dull finish. Available in silk and manufactured fibers in different weights, colors and widths.
Gestalt principles of perception
As identified by psychologist Max Wertheimer, the way we organize objects that we see to help us determine their importance, based on factors such as their similarity or proximity.
Gimp
A cord used to add support to a buttonhole.
Glazed Thread Finish
Thread with a surface coating of wax and starches to reduce abrasion and increase durability, perfect for button-sewing.
Glover's Needle
Triangular or wedge tip sewing needle used on leather, suede and faux leather. Comes in sizes 3/0-10.
Goethe’s proportions
Goethe proposed the concept that pairs of complements are best used together in specific proportions. For example, green and red should each have 50% of the area.
Godet
Triangular piece inserted into a garment at the hem or the sleeve to give extra fullness.
Godet Skirt
A triangular piece of fabric inserted upward from the hem of the skirt to give more fullness
Gored Skirt
Skirt with panels which fits through the waistline and flares out on each panel at the hem.
Gorge line
Seam that joins the collar and neckline at the lapel.
Gouache
Painting technique used in fashion illustration using gouache paints, consisting of pigment, which are then suspended in water.
Gradient
Several values of one hue (monochromatic) that are lined up in sequence from lightest to darkest. Gradient can also refer to shapes or lines placed in size order.
Grading
Increasing and or decreasing a base size pattern to fit various sizes. To reduce layers of seam allowance to reduce bulk when sewing a seam such as around the collar/neckline of a coat.
Grain
Term used to describe the yarn direction of a fabric: crossgrain (weft), lengthgrain (warp) or diagonal (bias). Also decribes the smooth side of a piece of leather after tanning.
Grain Side
Outside part of a leather skin.
Grainline
Direction of yarns in a fabric weave: crossgrain (weft), length grain (warp), diagonal (bias).
Graphite Pencil
Lead pencil used in fashion drawing.
Grommets
Circular rings with center holes to pass ties or laces through.
Grosgrain
By-the-yard ribbon with small grooves used as trim.
Gross Margin Return on Inventory Investment
a deduction that examines the relationship between inventory turnover and gross margin.
Gross Sales
The total sales for any given period before deducting the retail value of goods returned to the store and/ or making price allowances.
Ground
The background of a 2-dimensional image, placed behind the object.
Guide Lines
Marks made on muslin or paper and used to balance or control the grain lines during the draping process and pattern making process.
Guide Lines on Muslin
Marks made on muslin indicating grain and used to balance or control the muslin during the draping process.
Gusset
A piece of fabric inserted into an area of a garment to permit greater movement. Gussets are used at the underarm, the pant crotch on sides of handbag and shoes to create a wider opening.

H

Hair Canvas
Support material used in jackets and coats or in garments where a more structured look is desired.
Half Body Form
Dress form that goes from the neck to the end of the torso.
Half Circle Skirt
A skirt that is fitted at the waist, flares out at the hem, forming a hem sweep that is one-half of a full circle.
Half Circle Skirt Radius Calculations Chart
Chart with waist circumference and radius measurements for drafting a half circle skirt.
Halter Top
A top with a strap encircling the neck used to support the garment to the body, leaving the shoulders and the back bare.
Ham
Ironing tool, shaped like a ham, used when pressing certain shaped areas of a garment.
Hand
The feel of a fabric: smooth, stiff, soft, drapey, rigid, crisp or pliable.
Hand Baste
Simple hand stitch approximately 4-6 stitches per inch used to temporarily hold one or more layers of fabric together.
Hand Pick Stitch
A hand stitch with a small stitch pick-up. It is used either as a decorative holding stitch such as around a lapel edge, or in place of a machine stitch to securely hold a zipper in place such as on pile fabrics.
Handkerchief Hem
Pointed design detail on a dress, blouse or skirt hem that mimics the points of a handkerchief.
Hand-Knit
Knitting fabric or a garment by-hand using knitting needles.
Hand-Rolled Hem
A narrow hem finish used on sheer and lightweight fabrics. Hand-rolled hems are used mostly in high end garments due to the labor-intensive process or rolling the hem by hand and then using a slipstitch to finish the hem.
Hand-sewing
The process of crafting something by hand, making stitches with a hand-sewing needle and thread.
Hand-sewing Needles
Types of needles created specifically for hand sewing different types of fabrics and projects. Key factors to consider when choosing the correct needle are: the needle's eye, diameter, length and point, and its compatability to the fabric and project being sewn.
Harem Pants
Bouffant pants gathered into bands at the ankles.
Harmony
Colors that are pleasing together are said to be in harmony with each other.
Haro
Type of crisp, firm, plain weave cotton fabric used for interfacing and underlining. Available in soft and medium qualities.
Heavy-duty Thread
A core-spun thread used to sew gathers and shirring, either by hand or when placed in the bobbin of a sewing machine.
Heavyweight Cotton Drill Fabric
A durable cotton fabric with a pronounced diagonal twill weave. Often used to press heavyweight fabrics.
Hem
Finished portion of a garment such as a sleeve, skirt, dress or pant bottom. Or, the act of finishing the end of a garment.
Hem Allowance
The amount of fabric allocated to hemming an area of a garment.
Hem Binding
By-the-yard tape used to finish a hem or other raw edge of a garment. Also known as seam binding.
Hem Tape
A by-the-yard sew-on tape used to finish a hem or other raw edges of a garment. Also known as seam binding. The most common width used for hems is 1/2" (1.3 cm).
Hem Tape Hem
A hem finish that utilizes hem tape, and the most common hem finish in the fashion industry.
Hem Marker
Tool that measures from the floor up, the hem of a garment. Usually using chalk.
Hemline
Line that denotes the bottom of the hem before it is turned up and finished.
Hemming Stitch
A simple running stitch that temporarily keeps the hem up before it is permanently stitched.
HH
Acronym for high hip.
Hide
The skin of a large animal such as a hose or cow.
High Hip
Horizontal styleline positioned 4" down from the front waist and parallel to the floor.
High Neck Cowl
Softly draped design detail that sits high on the neck.
High Point Shoulder
The shoulder/neck intersection point on a dress form or a garment.
Hiking/Cargo Pants
Casual pants with large bellows pockets on the side legs and back.
Hip
Area of the figure measured at 7" down from the natural waistline.
Hip Curve
Tool with a curve that is used in draping and patternmaking to true the hip and assorted other areas of a pattern.
Hip Level
Horizontal styleline that is measured at 7" down from the natural waistline and is level to the floor.
Hip-Hugger
Pants cut below the natural waistline, usually resting on the hip bone, sometimes lower.
Hipline
Pants cut with fullness on both the outer and inner seams to give a bell flare at the hem.
HL
Acronym for hip level or hipline.
2-hole Button
Button made with 2 holes, most often used on lighweight fabrics.
3-hole button
A decorative button attachment with 3 holes.
4-hole Button
Button made with 4 holes, used when attaching buttons to medium- to heavy weight fabrics. A more secure button attachment than a 2-hole button.
Hole Puncher
Device that creates a large hole in patterns/slopers for hanging pattern pieces together on a pattern hook. Also known as a 'rabbit ears' punch.
Holding Stitch
A machine or hand stitch used to hold gathers, pleats or other area of a garment in place, before a permanent stitch is made.
Hong Kong Finish
Type of seam or hem finish where the edges of each seam are opened and bound with fabric.
Hong Kong Hem
A hem finish used on wools, or any light-to-medium-weight fabric whereby the raw edge of hem is bound with either a hand-made bias binding or with a by-the-yard bias binding, to create a clean finish. A Hong Kong bound hem finish is always the sign of a high-quality garment.
Hong Kong Seam
Type of seam finish whereby each opened raw edge of seam allowance is bound with either a bias fabric strip or a by-the-yard single or double-folded bias binding.
Hook and Eye
Two part metal closure that hooks into a loop and is often used on garment waistbands, tops of zippers and other areas, to close a garment.
Horizontal
At a right angle to the vertical.
Horsehair
By-the-yard stiffening material used to add structure to areas of a garment such as hems and collars . Available in various widths and colors.
Horsehair Canvas
A blend of wool or cotton and horse mane and tail. The horse hair is woven into the weft resulting in a 'springy' hand, perfect for tailored jacket collars and lapels.
Horsehair Hem
A hem finishing technique utilizing horsehair material to create a hem on sheer and lightweight fabrics, when extra shape and structure is required.
Hue
The color name, such as red, blue, green and yellow, based on the length of the light wave.
Hy-Mark Thread
A very strong 4-cord cotton thread with a glace or coated finish used for attaching buttons or other purposes where a stronger thread is desired.
Hymo
Type of hair canvas interfacing available in different weights and either fusible or non-fusible.

I

Illuminated
An area brightened up or lit by light from another source; also the decoration on a manuscript.
Implied curvilinear
A curvy movement indicated by the placement of a series of shapes on a curve in a composition. It is implied because no curvy line is actually drawn.
Imperial Measurement System
A measurment system used in the United States, Myanmar and Liberia, with units of measure calculated in inches, feet and pounds. The metric system is used in all other countries.
Indirect Operating Expenses
Expenses not related to a specific department. It includes store maintenance and security, senior executive salaries, and insurance.
Industrial Machine
Industry standard machines that are specifically built for long term professional sewing tasks and made out of durable parts with heavy motors. Some industrial machines include lockstitch, safety stitch, overlock, safety stitch, chainstitch, cover stitch, buttonhole, button stitching, pocket setter, flat-felling, belt loop setter, pocket welting, etc.
Inseam
Seam area on a garment such as the inside of a pant leg or the inside length of a sleeve. Men's pants sizes are measured from this length.
Inseam Pocket
Pocket that is hidden or inset into a section a garment such as in a seam.
Inset Armhole
The seam in men's trousers, from the crotch to the them. Leg length for men's pants is measured by this seam.
Inset Pocket
Pocket that is cut into a garment such as a welt pocket on a jacket.
Intensity
The saturation, chroma, brilliance or strength of a color as compared to gray. A high intensity color has no gray in it. Low intensity colors have more grayness, and are created by adding gray, black, white or the complement to a color.
Interfacing
Support material used on areas of a garment to give the it, shape, body and support. Can be woven, non woven, fusible or non-fusible.
Interfacing Compatability
Choosing an appropriate interfacing for a particular fabric. Always test the hand and feel of the interfacing to the fabric, the care instructions for the interfacing relative to the fabric and consider whether a woven/nonwoven or fusible/nonfusible is an approriate choice for the fabric.
Interference phenomenon of light
The obstruction of a ray of light with another medium such as oil, which causes a different hue to appear; also known as iridescence. We see interference colors in oil slicks, butterfly wings, bird feathers and the inside of oyster shells.
Interfacing Types
Interfacing types are based on whether they are woven/nonwoven, fusible/non-fusible and are chosen based on the fabric and the area being interfaced.
Interlining
Material used inside coats and jackets for warmth such as polyfil or goose down.
Interlock
A rib-knit variation made on a two-bed circular weft knitting machine known as a dial and cyclinder (referred to as an interlock machine) with long and short needles arranged alternately in both needle beds. The short needles in both beds work together to knit a course of 1 x 1 rib at one feed, then the long needles in both beds work together to knit a 1 x 1 rib in the next feed, and so on. Also called double knit or double jersey.
Interstitial
A narrow area that is in-between two shapes.
Inventory turnover
See Stock Turnover.
Inverted Pleated
Type of pleat that is hidden under two pieces of fabric on a garment.
Invisible Zipper
Zipper with hidden coil teeth made of nylon or polyester, inserted so that no machine stitching is visible from the right side of the garment or project. All of the stitching is concealed within the seam allowance. It can be inserted using a left or right zipper foot or with an invisible zipper foot attachement. Invisible zipper parts include: zipper pull, coil teeth, tape and stopper. Available in different widths, lengths and colors, often used on women's skirts, pants and dresses.
Iridescence
The interplay of rainbow-like hues that arises from interference of light waves by another medium such as oil or bird feathers. Objects that produce iridescence are opals, butterfly wings, peacock feathers, the mother-of-pearl that we see inside oyster shells, and oil slicks.
Irish Linen
Fabric made from flax fibers producing a soft, fine plain weave textile. In addition to clothing, light-weight Irish linen is an appropriate choice for interfacing medium- to heavy-weight fabrics and heavy-weight Irish linen for extra support.
Iron
A device used to flatten an area or areas of a garment.
Ironing Board
Padded and covered device used to iron garments and various other areas of garments.

J

Jabot
A rugged collar detail that sits at the neck of a shirt or blouse.
Jacquard
System of weaving or knitting that produces a patterned-fabric or knit. A woven jaquard textile is produced on a jacquard loom. In this system of weaving, the weave pattern is copied from the design paper by punching a series of cards, each perforation controls the action of the loom. The jacquard system is used to create brocade, damask and tapestry and often used as lining material. A jacquard knit is produced on a knitting machine with a mechanism that controls whether individual needles will knit, tuck, or miss, at yarn feeds. Knit jacquards have a patterned face and long floats on the back.
Jams
Type of patterned or printed shorts worn as beachwear or casual wear.
Jeans
Casual indigo blue denim or colored twill pants with back patch pockets, and 2 front top pockets.
Jewel Neckline
Round neckline that fits close to the neck and accentuates the wearer's jewelry.
Jodhpur Pants
Riding pants with narrow legs that widen substantially at the hips.
Juliet Sleeve
Long sleeve with short puffed top and fitted on the lower arm and wrist.

K

Kangaroo Pocket
Pouch like pocket on the front of a garment.
Keepsake Thimbles
Decorative thimbles that are desired as keepsakes by collectors known as digitabulists.
Keyhole
High round neckline made with a teardrop or keyhole piece cut out at the center front.
Keyhole Buttonhole
Type of hand or machine-made buttonhole in the shape of an elongated key hole. These buttonholes provide easier access for a button, especiallly a shank button to pass through, therefore most often used on jackets and coats.
Kick Pleat
Pleat on a skirt or dress that adds movement to the circumference of that garment.
Kilt
Pleated skirt, usually made from plaid fabric that wraps to one side and is held in place with a large pin ornament.
Kimono
Wrap robe silhouette of Japanese origin where either the body and sleeves are cut as one or where sleeves are straight and set in at right angles to the body.
Kimono Sleeve Sloper
Sloper where body and sleeves are cut as one, and used as the foundation block for design variations calling for deep armhole silhouettes such as dolman and batwing sleeves.
Knickers
Type of short pants, ending right below the knee with a cuff and are fastened with either a buckle, button or elastic.
Knife Pleat
Sharp even one directional pleats measuring 1/2" to 1" to 1" wide.
Knit Fabrics
Fabric created by interlooping yarns using needles to form loops which allows the fabric to stretch. Knit fabrics constructed in a horizontal orientation are known as weft knits and those constructed in a vertical orientation are known as warp knits. The amount of stretch is based on fabric construction and type of fiber used for the yarn.
Knit Stitch
Right side of the most basic knit stitch. Reverse side is known as a purl stitch.
Knitted Interfacing
Interfacing made on knit machinery and used to add shape and support to certain areas of a knit garment as well as on leather, faux leather, vinyl and woven fabrics for a softer end result. Types include tricot and weft interfacing which are available in different widths, colors, both fusible or non-fusible.
Knot
Securing or fastening thread to a fabric or at the end of a needle.

L

L-Square
Tool shaped like an "L" used in draping and patternmaking.
Lace Edge Binding
Type of lace binding used to finish the edges of hems or as a decorative detail.
Lacing
Using cord or fabric strips to close a garment as on the front of pants, skirts, corsets or anyplace where a decorative closure is desired.
Landed cost
The purchase price as it appears on the invoice plus transportation and import/ duty costs incurred.
Lantern Sleeve
Two piece sleeve that flares out to form a lantern-like effect.
Lapel
The turn back portion of a front opening, where the closure starts on the front.
Lapped Seam
Type of seam finish where one edge of the seam, raw edge or folded over, overlaps the other raw edge and is then stitched together on top of the seam. A lapped seam with a raw finish can only be done when working with materials that do not fray, such as double-faced wool, leather, faux leather and vinyl.
Lapped Zipper
Zipper setting application where one side of the fabric 'laps' over the zipper, covering the teeth. It is most often used on dresses and on pants (trousers) and skirts that have a waistband.
Lapped Zipper with Facing
A center back lapped zipper with a neckline facing is most commonly found on tailored dresses.
Layered Skirt
Skirt made of tiers in varying lengths
Leather
Technically all animal skins are leather however the name leather is most often associated with the fur-bearing or outside of a leather skin, also known as nappa or the grain side.
Leather Needle
A hand sewing needle with a trangular point for penetrating leather and leatherlike materials. Also known as glover's needles, the length and diameter are the same as for sharps, sized 1-12.
Leather Thimbles
A type of thimble that is more comfortable to use than a metal thimble because they are malleable.
Left-Side Zipper Foot
A sewing machine foot attachment with a left side notch, used for zipper-setting and when sewing close to a particular section of a garment.
Leg o'Mutton Sleeve
Sleeve with full top gathered or pleated into armhole and tapered to wrist where it looks like a regular sleeve.
Length Grain
In a plain weave textile lengthwise, also known as the warp, is the strongest grain. Ways to identify muslin length grain are: 1) parallel to the selvage, 2) has little or no stretch to it, 3) length grain yarns are stronger and smoother, unlike crossgrain yarns which are slubby, and 4) when folded it lays flat unlike the crossgrain which will be a bit bouncy.
Lengthwise Grain
In a plain weave textile the lengthwise, also known as the warp, is the strongest grain. Ways to identify muslin length grain are: 1) parallel to the selvage, 2) has little to no stretch to it 3) length grain yarns are stronger and smoother, unlike crossgrain yarns which are slubby, and 4) when folded it lays flat unlike the crossgrain which will be a bit bouncy.
Line of composition
The major orientation of the lines in a composition; the type of line in the composition that has the most influence over the mood and artistic message. There is often a secondary line of composition with slightly less influence.
Linear perspective
Lines and forms on a 2-dimensional surface that give the illusion of distance.
Lining
Separate garment made out of lightweight material that lines the inside of a garment adding shape and comfort while covering the inner seams and structure of the outer shell.
Local color
The color ascribed to an object irrespective of the lighting situation. We don’t really know whether every object has its own local color, since we only see relative to the lighting situation.
Lockstitch Machine
The most commonly used sewing machine both domestic and industrial. The machine consists of a single needle that uses two threads, one in the needle and the other in a bobbin. The stitch is made by the interlocking of the top and bottom thread. Industrial double-needle machines are made specifically for this purpose while some domestic machines are equipped to sew both, single and double-needle stitches using a twin-needle. Always check your sewing machine guide to be sure that your machine has a double-needle capability.
Loop Turner
Metal tool with a latch and hook end used to turn fabric tubings inside out.
Lowered/Extended Side Seam
The amount of ease given to a bodice, torso or dress drape or pattern, based upon whether the garment is sleeveless or has a sleeve.
Lubricated Thread Finish
A silicon lubricant called Sewer's Aid is applied to a spool of thread in a zig-zag pattern to help reduce friction and heat during stitching.
Luminous
Radiating or reflecting light; the source of light.
Luster
The gleam of reflected light that we see on fabrics such as silk or leather. Within the category of luster are the qualities of luminosity and iridescence.

M

Machine Basting
Long temporary machine stitches sewn at approximately 4- 6 stitches per inch which are later snipped every few inches and removed.
Machine Needle Points
Sewing machine needles specific to a particular sewing machine and the project being sewn. The point shape, in combination with the point tip, determines its performance. Needle points fall into two broad categories, round and sharp. Round points for sewing wovens, with ballpoint needles used for knits. Sharp points, either spear or wedge-shaped are used for non-wovens such as leather and faux leather.
Machine-foot Baby Hem
Very small baby-like hem finish used on sheers and lightweight fabrics, made on a sewing machine with a 1/8" (3mm) hemming foot attachment.
Magic Rub Eraser
White eraser used in fashion drawing.
Magnetic Pin Holder & Wand
A magnetic device used to hold and collect pins after a spill.
Magnetic Seam Guide
Magnetized gauge device used on a sewing machine to assist in the sewing of seams, topstitching and other functions.
Mandarin Collar
Standing-band collar that extends up on neck not quite meeting at center front.
Mandarin Collar
Standing-band collar that extends up on neck, not quite meeting at center front.
Manipulate Darts
The process of moving a dart from one position on a garment drape to another. For example, moving a bust dart from the shoulder to the side seam.
Man-Made Fibers
Any fiber derived through a process of manufacture. They are made from: natural polymers or regenerated fibers such as acetate and rayon from wood pulp and bamboo from grass pulp; from synthetic polymers using a chemical process such as acrylic, nylon, polyester and spandex derived pretoleum products or those made from inorganic man-made fibers derived from materials such as glass, metal, carbon or ceramic.
Mannequin
A stylized version of the human form used in retail stores to display clothing.
Marker
Schematic plan of graded pattern parts by size of a particular garment style. Markers can be made manually or by computer.
Markdown
A reduction in the original or previous retail price of an item or group of items.
Marking
The act of placing pencil, chalk or pen marker notations while draping to indicate areas that will later be trued on the table.
Markup
The difference between the amount the retailer pays a vendor or manufacturer and retail price sold to the end consumer. (It could be stated in dollars or percent).
Mary Jane
Shoe with a strap covering the instep of the foot.
Master Pattern
Name given to the original graded patterns for a particular style from which copies or tracings are made.
Match
To line up, as in matching notches or a plaid or stripe, at the side seam on a given style.
Matte Jersey
A warp knitted fabric made with tricot construction using fine crepe yarn producing a dry, textured hand and dull finish. Available in rayon and silk blends.
Mechanical Pencil
Lead pencil with holder used in patternmaking.
Mercerized Cotton
A chemical finish added to thread to give strength and luster.
Mercerized Cotton Thread
Cotton thread that is treated with sodium hydroxide to enhance its strength, luster and durability. Some thread brands refer to a mercerized finish as a 'silk finish.'
Merchandise Department
A group of related merchandise for which separate expense and merchandising records are kept for the purpose of determining the profit of this grouping.
Metal Ruler
Straight edge metal ruler used in draping, pattern making and sewing. Available in 36" (91cm), 48" (122cm) and 60" (154cm).
Metamerism
A pair of colors that are different under one light source but appear to be the same under another type of light source. They are a metameric match. This difference in their appearance happens because the colors are not a spectral match; that is, they do not have the same spectral reflectance curve.
Metameric match
Two samples of colors, as in paint, that look different under different light sources.
Meter
In music, meter is the beat; the background pulse that you feel that makes you want to tap your foot.
Metric Count
Part of the thread sizing 'fixed-weight system' referring to the amount of thread required to weigh a specific amount. The metric count system is the number of one meter hanks of a single thread that weigh one gram. The higher the number the finer the thread. It is listed as 'Nm' on a thread spool in parentheses.
Metric System
A decimal measuring system based on the meter, liter, and gram.
Metric Ticket
Part of the thread sizing 'fixed-weight system' referring to the amount of thread required to weigh a specific amount. The metric ticket system is a variation of the metric count system and based on the number of meters of thread needed to weigh three grams. The higher the number the finer the thread. On a thread spool it is listed in parentheses as: No., No./Tkt. or Tkt.
Microfiber
A very fine filament or staple fiber, generally less than 0.01 denier per filament or less, or 10 microns in diameter, producing a soft, light weight, fabric from synthetics fibers such as polyester or nylon (polyamide).
Middle Gray
The value we call middle gray appears to be the point halfway between black and white.
Middy/Sailor collar
Flat collar that is wide in the back then tapers into nothing in the front.
Midriff
A top silhouette that ends under the bust leaving the rib cage bare.
Midriff Yoke
A separate piece on a top, blouse or dress that hugs the rib cage of the body.
Milliners Needle
Needles that are longer than sharps and used for basting, pleating and by milliners.
Milliners/Straw Needles
Milliners are the longest of the hand-sewing needles, and have a small, round eye. They are used for gathering, smocking, pleating, basting and millinery work.
Minaudire
A small jeweled handbag usually used for eveningwear.
Miter
A diagonal seam at a square corner, such as at the bottom of a skirt vent or sleeve vent. Also, when a plaid or stripe comes together at a 45 degree angle such as on a side seam.
Miter/Mitre
To join two edges of fabric, cut at a 45 degree angle, to form a corner. Mitered corners are used on jacket hems, sleeve hems and skirt vents. Mitering also occurs when a plaid or stripe fabric seam comes together at a 45 degree angle, such as on a skirt front.
Moccasin
Shoe based on footwear worn by Native Americans.
Mock French Seam Finish
A seam finish used on sheer fabrics to clean the edge without the labor involved in creating a French seam.
Momme
The unit of weight for silk fabrics expressed in terms momme. One momme is equal to 4.340 grams per square meter; 8 mommes is approximately 1 ounce per square yard or 35 grams per square meter. The higher the mommes, the heavier the weight.
Monochromatic
Having one hue.
Monofilament Thread
A single strand of filament fiber. These threads are finer and stronger than spun thread and less costly. They are commonly used in industrial hemming and chain stitch machines.
Mood Board
Presentation board used to help sell a designer's collection concept for a particular season.
Motorcycle Jacket
Zipper front black leather jacket ending right below the waist with several pocket zippers. Worn by motorcycle gangs such as the Hell's Angels.
Muffler
Accessory used around the neck for warmth.
Multifilament Thread
A thread consisting of several strands of filament. Since filament threads are made from continuous manufactured fibers, they require only a slight twist to hold them together.
Mushroom Pleating
Type of thin pleating resembling the underside of a mushroom cap.
Muslin
Plain weave fabric used in draping and available in a variety of weights, from fine to heavy.
Muslin Block
A piece of muslin that has been measured, cut to size and blocked, in preparation for draping.

N

2 Needle Coverstitch Hem
A hem finish consisting of a series of looped stitches forming a chain-like pattern on one side of the fabric and a 2-needle lockstitch effect on the other side. A coverstitch hem finish is primarily used on knit fabrics and best when sewn using a coverstitch machine however, a home-sewing machine with a coverstitch setting and a twin-needle capability can simulate a coverstitch hem. A 2 needle coverstitch can also be used on seams and necklines.
3 Needle Coverstitch Hem
A hem finish consisting of a series of looped stitches forming a chain-like pattern on one side of the fabric and a 3-needle lockstitch effect on the other side. A coverstitch hem finish is primarily used on knit fabrics and sewn using a coverstitch machine. A 3 needle coverstitch creates a denser chain-like stitch than a 2 needle but has the same amount of stretch. A 3 needle coverstitch can also be used on seams and necklines.
Nap
The direction of the pile on a fabric such as velvet or corduroy. Patterns must be layed-out in one direction, usually nap smoothed up, before cutting.
Natural Fibers
Fibers derived from natural resources. They are made from animal, vegetable or mineral resources, such as wool from the hair of sheep and other animals, silk from the silkworm, cotton from bolls of the cotton plant and linen from the flax plant.
NB
Acronym for neckband.
Neck Dart
Darts that emanate from the neckline. Front neck darts positioned at the neckline must vanish at least 1/2"(1.3cm) away at the apex. Back neck darts are positioned approximately 1 1/2" (3.8cm) away from center back. They are approximately 3" (7.6cm) in length and vanish in the direction of the back princess seam.
Neck Dart Bodice
Bodice where the dart emanates from the neckline and vanishes at the apex.
Neckband
Thin strip of fabric inserted into a neckline and used as a collar or collar stand.
Neckline
Contour of the neck from front to back.
Needle
A device used to sew one or more layers together. Hand-sewing needles and sewing-machine are basically comprised of an eye/opening for the thread to pass through, a shaft, and a point/tip which penetrates the fabric. Needles are available in a wide variety of sizes, thicknesses and point types and are chosen based on the project and the type of thread and material being sewn.
Needle Classes
A method of defining needle dimensions to suit a particular sewing machine type. There are a wide variety of needles for domestic or home sewing machines, as well as those specific to industrial sewing machines.
Needle Threader
A device used when threading a hand-sewing or sewing machine needle to make it easier for the thread to pass through the eye of the needle.
Needlepoint Tracing Wheel
Tool with pointed edges, used in conjunction with tracing paper, to transfer lines and markings when draping and pattern making.
Negative space
The background surrounding the lines and forms in a 2-dimensional composition.
Nehru Collar
Type of stand collar popularized by Indian Prime Minister Nehru.
Net Sales
The dollar volume of merchandise sold, also known as sales volume.
Netting
An open, mesh fabric available in a variety of fiber contents, such as silk, cotton, polyester, nylon and blends and in varying degrees of stiffness. It is often used as an interfacing for light-weight fabrics.
Nightgown
One piece sleepwear garment.
Nightshirt
One piece sleepwear garment reminiscent of a man's shirt.
NL
Acronym for neckline.
Nonfusible Interfacing
Interfacing, either woven or knitted without adhesive backing.
Non-woven
Fabric that is made by fusing fibers together as in interfacing and felt material.
Nonwoven Interfacing
Interfacing made by bonding or fusing fibers together either mechanically, thermally or chemically. Available in different textures, weights, widths and colors, either fusible or nonfusible.
Norfolk Jacket
Single breasted jacket with vertical front pleats and a self belt.
Notch Collar
Type of collar that when connected to a neckline lapel, creates a notch like effect.
Notch Collar Blazer
Classic jacket style with notch collar and patch pockets.
Notcher
Metal tool used to make notches on patterns.
Notches
Marks made on patterns to indicate where seams align, where hems are turned and other key matching points that are necessary when constructing a garment.
Nubuck
Grain side of leather that has been sanded or buffed to give a slight nap finish.

NylonA manufactured fiber comprised of a long chain synthetic polyamide. Characteristics of nylon are: high strength, elasticity, abrasion, rot and mildew resistant, has low water absorption rate, is quick dryong, and resistant to chemicals. It is often blended with other fibers, especially when used as lining material.

O

Oak tag
Heavy weight paper, green on back, manila-colored on face, used for pattern slopers.
Oaktag (card)
A heavy weight paper used in pattern making for creating slopers (blocks). Available as manila-colored right side/green underside, or both sides manila or white. Also known as card.
Obi
Sash-like belt as seen on a Japanese Kimono.
Object
The figure in a representational composition; the opposite of the background.
Off-grain
Garment that is not draped or cut on the proper fabric grain. Draping or cutting a garment off grain results in a poor fit and a grament that is unbalanced.
One-Way Print
A printed fabric with a distinct motif that must be positioned, layed out on fabric and cut in a one-way direction.
One-Way Stretch
A knit fabric whose stretch is limited to only one way, usually in the cross direction. This can also apply to stretch-woven fabrics.
Opaque
A surface that transmits no light through it, made of materials ranging from soft fabrics or rubber to hard materials like plastic or metal.
Open-Ended Dart
Dart that is not sewn to the vanishing point.
Open-To-Buy (OTB)
A revolving account that is used to plan merchandise for retailers. It is a critical financial reserve that allows buyers to replenish inventory with reorders of the top sellers during the merchandise period
Operating Expenses
The cost of operating the business. The expenses incurred by the retailer for general administrative business activities during any given period. These expenses are not related to the production of goods and services.
Organic
A word that describes lines or shapes that are curvy and do not follow the shape of a recognizable geometric form; lines or shapes with no sharp edges.
Organza
Sheer fabric with some rigidity to it. Available in cotton, silk or a blend.
Orientation
The direction in which a line or shape leads.
Outer Shell Fabric
The outside of the garment.
Outseam
The pant side seam from waist to ankle, or any out-facing seam, such as the center seam on a 2-piece raglan sleeve.
Overcast Seam
Seam finish done either by machine with a zig-zag stitch or by hand using an overcast stitch.
Overcast Stitch
A diagonal hand stitch covering an edge, to keep the edge from fraying.
Overlock & Open Seam
A popular seam finish for light- to medium weight fabrics using an overlock machine/serger and a lockstitch machine. The seams are joined with a lockstitch, then the edges are overlocked and pressed open using paper underneath to prevent the seams edges from leaving an impression on the right side.
Overlock Machine
A type of sewing machine, also known as a serger, that uses between 2-5 threads to sew an overlocking stitch finish over one or more raw edges on seams and hems. They are available as stand alone domestic and industrial machines however, some domestic lockstitch sewing machines offer overlock capability.
Overlock with Catchstitch Hem
A hem finish using an overlock machine stitch to clean the raw edge and then a hand-sewn catchstitch to stitch the hem. A catch stitch provides a certain amount of 'give', that allows the hem to stretch.
Overlock/Chainstitch Neckline
A knit neckline finish using an overlock machine to finish the raw edge of the neckline and then a chainstitch machine to secure the folded seam allowance edge of the fabric to the body.
Overlocked Hem
A hem finish created using an overlock machine to clean the raw edge and the hem is turned and stitched, either by hand or by machine. It is commonly used in the industry and popular wth home sewers.

P

Padstitch
Hand stitches made on the diagonal joining 2 pieces of cloth together to add shape and structure such as on the under side of a jacket collar and lapel.
Pajama
Two Piece sleepwear garment.
Palazzo Pants
Long wide-legged pants.
Pant Form
Bifurcated dress form waist to ankle.
Pant Sloper
Foundation pant sloper that can be used to create many different types of pants.
Pants (Trousers)
A garment that is worn on the lower half of the body, with separate tubular sections for the legs.
Paper-bag Waist
Pant or skirt design detail that is cinched in at the waist usually with a drawstring and ruffles on the top.
Parent color
In an illustration of transparency, the parent color is one of the two that are mixed together to produce a “child” color.
Parallel Dart
Side by side darts.
Parallel Pinning
Pinning seams in the same direction of a seam or hemline that go around the body/dress form. For example, the parallel pinning of a seam joining a bodice to a skirt.
Parka
A hooded outerwear jacket ending at the hip or slightly lower.
Partially Pinnable Dress Form
Dress form used for display purposes in retail stores where pins can only be inserted at an angle. This type of dress form cannot be used for draping purposes.
Passive energy
Acceptance of, or a non-moving obstruction to, nearby elements. Curves are examples of passive reaction to the adjacent elements.
Patch Pocket
Pocket that sits on top of a garment.
Pattern
A predictable arrangement of lines and shapes using repetition and other techniques.
Pattern
Paper or muslin guide of a garment design which is cut out of fabric.
Pattern Layout
Arranging pattern pieces of a garment on fabric or paper to get the best possible yield.
Pattern Making
Two-dimensional method of creating a garment or accessory using pattern paper.
Pattern Paper
Solid white, or dotted/numbered paper used to draft patterns, available in several widths 36" (91cm), 45" (114cm), 48" (122cm), 60" (154cm) and 66" (168cm).
P&L
Acronym referring to ‘Profit & Loss’.
Pea/Reefer Jacket
Double-breasted outerwear jacket popularized by the U.S. Navy.
Peaked Lapel
Notch collar effect where the lapel points up.
Pearl Cotton
A loosely twisted mercerized cotton thread with a cord-like, rope appearance, used for basting, needlepoint, decorative stitching, embroidery and crochet.
Peasant Blouse
Ethnic style blouse with a gathered top and waist. Sometime will be smocked or embroidered.
Peasant Sleeve
Full sleeve gathered at top and sewn into a band or cuff at the bottom.
Peg-Top Skirt
Skirt with a gathered or pleated full waist that tapers at the bottom.
Pegged Pants
Pants with a gathered or pleated full waist and that taper at the ankle.
Pencil Leg/Stovepipe/Cigarette
Slim fitting pants that are the same width at the knee and at the ankle.
Pencil Sharpener
Device used to sharpen lead pencils during the draping and pattern making process.
Penny Loafer
Flat shoe with a place to insert a coin on the vamp or instep.
Perception
The way the human brain shapes our understanding of what we see.
Perfecting
In patternmaking, a term that refers to defining your lines.
Perpendicular
Relationship between two lines that meet at a right angle (90°).
Peplum
Skirt like effect created either in one piece or as an insert into the waist.
Perfecting
In patternmaking, a term that refers to defining your lines.
Petal/Tulip Sleeve
Sleeve that wraps across the front creating a petal effect.
Peter Pan Collar
Flat collar with rounded ends in the front.
Petersham
Support material heavier than grosgrain and used as an interfacing.
Pick Stitch
Small hand stitch used for sewing areas of the garment in place of a machine stitch such as the zipper on velvet and around the collar of a jacket lapel.
Picture Plane
The flat surface - the paper or canvas - of the 2-dimensional composition. It is a vertical plane. The top, bottom and side edges of the composition define the limits of the picture plane, and we say they are on the picture plane level.
Pigment
Coloring matter in the form of insoluble powder, which is mixed with an aqueous or oil base to make paint.
Pilgrim
Flat collar extending onto the shoulder with pointed front ends.
Pin
Steel device used in patternmaking and sewing to hold fabric or paper while cutting and in draping to secure fabric to the dress form.
Pin Basting
Using pins to hold layers together before sewing or during a fitting.
Pin Cushion
A small cushion that needles and pins are stick into until needed. Armband pincushions and magnetic pin holders are also available for use in draping and fitting garments, in sewing and pattern making
Pin Tuck
Narrow stitched down tuck usually in clusters used as decorative details on blouses as well as other areas of a garment.
Pin Types
Pins are available in a variety of shapes and sizes and are selected based on the project. Straight pins range in size, from short to long, in various thicknesses, and with different types of points and heads. The most common types include, #17 Dressmaker Pins, Extra-Fine Satin Pins, Silk Pins, Patchwork Pins, and Ballpoint Pins for knit fabrics. Included in this category are safety pins, push pins, T-pins, open-eye pins and fork blocking pins.
Pinhead
The top part or 'nub' of a straight pin. Different types of pinheads are availabe and chosen based on the specific project. Flat head pins are popular because they can be pressed with a hot iron while plastic, pearlized plastic and glass pinheads may not be able to withstand high heat. However, these pinheads, as well as specialty pinheads, such as T-pins and decorative flat-head pins, are perfect for working with open weave fabrics as the large heads don't get lost in the work.
Pink
Using a pinking shears to finish the edge of a fabric to keep it from fraying or as a decorative touch.
Pinked & Open Seam
A seam finish in which the raw edge of the seam allowance is trimmed with a pinking shears, 1/4" (6mm) away from the raw edge, and the seam is then pressed open.
Pinked & Stitched Hem
A seam finish whereby the raw hem edge is pinked and a line of machine stitching is sewn 1/4" (6mm) away from the pinked edge. This hem is a popular choice for fabrics that do not fray easily.
Pinking Shears
Scissors with a serrated blade used to finish the edges of seam or as a decorative touch.
Pinning Darts
On front and back vertical darts, pin with the dart intake pointing in the direction of center. For horizontal darts, pin with the dart intake pointing in a downward direction.
Pinning Seams
Side seams and shoulder seams are pinned back over front in draping.
Piping
Folded strip of cloth, sometimes with a cord insert, sewn into a seam or on a garment edge as a trim.
Piping Edge
Decorative trim used to finish edges of a garment.
Pitch
In music, how high or how low the notes are.
Pivot
The act of holding in one place with a pencil or pin and then shifting a pattern to another direction, for example when shifting a dart from shoulder to the side seam.
Pivot Method
In patternmaking, the process of shifting a pattern to another area on a pattern. For example when shifting a dart from neck to shoulder.
Pivot Point
The place where a pivot takes place such as at the vanishing point of a dart or at the apex.
PL
Acronym for princess line.
Placket
Piece that clean finishes an area such as along center front or on a sleeve, allowing for buttons and buttonholes.
Plaid
A yarn-dyed woven or printed plaid fabric that is composed of different colored threads, forming stripes and bars that cross each other at right angles to form squares.
Plain Seam
Placement of one seam over the other and then stitching them together to form the most basic seam type.
Plastic Elastic Threader
A tool used to pull elastic through a casing.
Plate Screw
Screw in the middle of the metal plate of a dress form's armhole.
Pleat
To fold material flat and either stitch down or leave loose to add extra fullness to a garment. Or, the act of turning material over and pressing it flat.
Pleat Depth
Fold of fabric usually pressed flat but sometimes left unpressed. When used in a skirt, blouse or dress, it is sometimes stitched down at the top of the garment to make it hang better.
Pleat Underlay
Amount of material allotted to create a pleat.
Ply
The act of laying one layer on top of another.
Pocket
Garment detail that can be applied in different ways: on top as in a patch pocket, as a bag-type that is inset into a garment as in a welt pocket, or sewn into a seam as in an inseam pocket.
Pocketing
Material used for garment pocket bags. Usually a tightly woven cotton or cotton blend.
Point
The end of something such as the end point of a dart.
Pointer
A wooden or plastic tool that comes to a sharp point on one end. It is used for sewn areas that have to end in a point, such as collar points.
Polo Shirt
Short sleeved knit shirt with a ribbed collar and half placket front.
Poly-fil®
A branded polyester or manufactured fiber, fiber fill blend, made by Fairfield Processing Corporation,used as an interlining, either by-the-yard or as separate filler, to channel quilt jackets and coats.
Polyester
A manufactured fiber comprised of a long-chain synthetic polymer, linking several esters within the fiber. Reaction of alcohol with carboxylic acid results in the formation of esters. Polyester fabric is: strong, durable, wrinkle-resistant, resistant to most chemicals, stretching and shrinking, mildew and abrasion resistant, and easily washed and dried. Polyester is often blended with other fibers.
Ponte di Roma
A double knit fabric structure similar to interlock, made on a dial and cylinder knitting machine, by repeating on four courses. Two courses are knitted interlock, the third is knitted only on the cylinder needles and the last is knitted only on the dial needles.
Positive space
The objects in a composition.
Power Mesh
A micro-fine 4-way stretch knit mesh fabric containing more than 15% elastomeric (spandex/Lycra) yarns with a stretch ratio of more than 50% in both directions. Used in activewear, swimwear, lingerie and as a lining for lace garments.
Preshrunk
Fabric that has been shrunk before cutting to avoid additional shrinkage once the garment is sewn and pressed.
Pre-waxed/Pre-cut Thread
A 2-ply pre-waxed nylon silamide thread. It is strong and smooth and used for hems, pad stitching, attaching zippers, buttons, hooks and eyes and for beading. Available on skien or a vicone or, in pre-cut lengths of approximately 1.25 meters providing the optimum length for tailoring purposes.
Preshrink
To avoid reduction in length and/or width of a fabric or trim, caused by certain treatments such as washing, drycleaning or pressing with a hot iron, a shrink test is executed to check for shrinkage even before the garment or trim is cut. It is done through steam pressing and/or cleaning a test swatch.
Preshrunk
Fabric or trim that has been shrunk before cutting, to avoid additional shrinkage once the garment is sewn and pressed.
Press
Ironing a garment or fabric. Always best to iron with the direction of the grain.
Presser Foot
Sewing machine attachment that holds the material in place during the sewing process.
Pressing (Tailor's) Ham
A pressing device shaped like a ham and used when pressing curved seams or any curved area of a garment.
Presser Mitt
Padded mitt used to press areas of a garment where an iron can't reach.
Pressing Cloth
Piece of fabric used while pressing a garment to avoid shine marks on the right side of fashion fabric.
Pressure & Release brush stroke
A brush stroke technique used in fashion illustration. The process of applying pressure on the tip of the paint brush as you stroke and then releasing the pressure as you lift the brush off the paper. This technique covers the area with paint or ink and results in the pooling of paint or ink which adds depth to the illustration.
Presto Correction Pen
Tool used to make corrections to fashion drawings.
Prick Stitch
A hand sewing stitch made up of very tiny backstitches, 1/16" (2mm) long, followed by 1/4" (6mm) short spaces between each stitch. This hand stitch is also useful when setting a zipper into pile fabrics, such as velvet, since a machine zipper foot would crush the nap of the fabric.
Primary Hues
These hues cannot be attained by mixing other colors. Red, yellow and blue are the three pigment primary hues; red, blue and green are the three primary hues in light.
Princess Bodice
Any dress with fullness protruding in back from waist to hem.
Princess Bodice
Bodice with vertical stylelines that on the front, start at mid-shoulder, go through the apex and continue straight down to about the mid-waist. On the back, the princess line starts at mid shoulder, curves along the middle of the back and ends at about the mid-waist.
Princess Dress
Dress with vertical stylelines that on the front start at mid shoulder, go through the apex, continues straight down and end at the hem. On the back the princess line starts at mid shoulder, curves along the middle of the back and ends at the hem.
Princess Kimono
One piece bodice and sleeve garment, traditional to Japanese costume.
Princess Lines
Stylelines that divide the middle of each panel of the front and back of a garment. Princess lines must transect the apex or be placed within 1" of the apex for proper fit.
Princess Panels
Sections of a dress form or garment that are located between the apex and the side seam on the front, and on the back between the side seam and mid shoulder. Styleline variations are also possible but on the front, the princess line must either transect the apex, or be placed within 1 " (2.5cm) of the apex, to ensure a proper fit.
Princess Seam
Seams of a princess line design.
Print Fabric
Pattern or motif applied to fabric using a variety of methods, such as block printing, roller printing, screen printing (rotary or flat bed), transfer printing, heat transfer printing, ink-jet printing, carpet printing, warp printing, resist printing, photographic printing, pigment printing, blotch printing, burn-out printing, direct printing, discharge printing or duplex printing.
Profile
A description of the color space of a printing or viewing device; a list of all the colors it can produce based on its system of primary hues. Because devices such as scanners and printers, and monitors, have different systems of primary hues, they have different profiles.
Profit
The net gains after cost of handling merchandise and operating expenses have been deducted. It is determined by subtracting the Operating Expenses from the Gross Margin.
Profit and Loss (P&L) Statement
A summary of the income and expenses of a business.
Protect and Grip Thimble
A thimble with a rubber body and a metal top, combining structure with flexibility.
Proximity
In the same area.
Puff
Short sleeve that is gathered at the top and at the bottom.
Puff Sleeve
Short sleeve that is gathered at the top and at the bottom and set into a band, cuff or elastic casing.
Puff-Top Sleeve
Short sleeve gathered, either at the armhole or at the cuff band or both, producing a rounded shape.
Purl
Reverse side of a knit stitch (plain or basic stitch). The top side of the stitch is known as a knit stitch.
Purchases
The Billed Cost of new goods during the period, minus any returns to or allowances from the vendor.
Pushpin
A short sturdy pin with a long, cylindrical head made of plastic or metal.
Put-up
Term given to how a thread is packaged according to the type of thread, the machine being used and the sewing requirements. Four most common 'put-ups' are: spool, cup, cone, vicone.

Q

Quantity Discount
A discount offered to buyers when a specified quantity of goods is purchased. It is a percentage discount to be deducted from the billed cost when a predetermined quantity is purchased.
Quarter Circle Skirt
A skirt that is fitted at the waist, flares out at the hem, forming a hem sweep of a quarter circle.
Quarter Circle Radius Calculations Chart
Chart with waist circumference and radius measurements for drafting a quarter circle skirt.
Quilted
Two fabrics stitched together either by machine or by hand with a layer of batting in between to create a raised effect.
Quilter Ruler
Clear plastic ruler with holes in the middle along the length of the ruler.
Quilter's Gloves
A glove tool used by quilters to help guide a needle through fabric with ease during the quilting process.
Quilter's Tips
Type of finger covering worn on the pointer finger and thumb, to help grip a needle and pull it through the fabric during hand sewing. It can also help grasp and guide fabrics through the sewing machine.
Quilting Needles
Also known as betweens needles. Quilting needles are shorter than sharps and have a small rounded eye for making fine stitches on medium to heavyweight fabrics. They are mostly used in tailoring and in quilting.
Quotient
A result obtained by dividing one quantity by another.

R

Rabbit Ears
Device that creates a large hole in patterns/slopers for hanging pattern pieces together on a pattern hook. Also know as a hole puncher.
Radial balance
Balance that is achieved by elements that start in the center and move out along a radius, like the spokes of a wheel.
Radius
The line measured from the center of a circle.
Raglan Armhole
Stylized armhole that starts either at the neckline, the shoulder or at center front and ends below a traditional set-in sleeve armhole.
Raglan Sleeve
Sleeve that fits into raglan armhole.
Raschel Fabric
A warp knit fabric, similar to tricot, but made on a raschel warp knitting machine. Raschel fabrics are used for innerwear garments such as bras, panties, and sleepwear, as well as in active and athleisurewear garments including sportswear linings and track suits.
Rayon
A manufactured fiber composed of regenerated cellulose with high-absorbency, a bright or dull luster, drapey hand, originally known as artifical silk. Rayon, when used as a lining material, is often blended with acetate and other synthetic fibers.
Receipt of Goods Dating Retail Price
The price at which the stores offer merchandise for sale.
Recovery
A term used to describe the degree of resiliency of a knit fabric and how a knit fabric returns to its original shape after being stretched.
Red Pencil
Pencil used in draping, pattern making and sewing to make corrections or mark certain areas of a pattern or fabric.
Redingote
A coat belonging to an dress/coat ensemble.
Refraction
Light waves bend and split up into their component parts when passing through a medium such as the lens of a prism. We call those component parts the seven spectral hues.
Regular Dating
One of the most common types of dating; it allows the cash discount to be taken within a specified period (usually 10 days) of time from the date of invoice.
Relationship of hues
Several relationships exist as a result of the distance the hues are from each other on the color circle – for example, complements.
Released Dart
Slightly fitted coat matched to a dress to make an ensemble
Removable Tape
Clear cellophane tape with a small amount of adhesive backing so that it can be eaisly removed during the pattern making process.
Representational art
Art that looks like real life objects.
Return on Investment (ROI)
A percentage of gain realized from an investment.
Re-true
The act of re-marking or adjusting lines on a drape or pattern.
Rever
Refers to a lapel on a jacket, blouse, vest or coat.
Reverberation
A quality of sound that makes it seems to come from different locations, making the audio space bigger or smaller.
Rhythm
In music, how the beat sounds over time; how the sounds link to each other.
Rib Knit
A knit stitch created using a series of alternating knit and purl stitches, or various combinations of these stitches, such as 1 x 1, 2 x 1, 2 x 2 rib, 2 x 3, etc.
Ribbed Knit
A knit fabric composed of vertical dimensional rows achieved by alternating the stockinette stitch with the reverse stockinette stitch.
Ribbon-Edge Hem
A decorative hem finish that uses ribbon to add structure and detail to the hem of any sheer garment.
Riding/Hacking/Equestrian Jacket
Single breasted jacket cut full at the hip for horseback riding or sometimes can be pleated in the back to add extra fullness.
Right Angle
An angle of 90°, as in a corner of a square or at the intersection of two perpendicular straight lines.
Right-Side Zipper Foot
A sewing machine foot attachment with a right side notch, used for zipper-setting and when sewing close to a particular section of a garment.
Rip-out
Process of removing sewing stitches.
Rods
Photoreceptors in our retinas that allow us to see light and dark.
Roll line
The line at which a collar turns over as in a roll collar.
Rolled Collar
Collar that sits high on the back neck and whose neck shape is a straighter line than that of a flat collar.
Rolled Cuff
Extension of the sleeve which is folded up to form a turned-up cuff.
Roller Tool
Tool used to flatten seams on leather and suede.
Rotary Blade Cutter
Cutting device used in combination with a cutting mat to cut fabric and paper.
Round Brush
Paint brush used in fashion illustration. Available in assorted sizes.
Ruffled Hem
Nylon bag with straps fitting over shoulders so that it can be worn on the back
Rubber Thimble
A soft, flexible thimble made out of rubber, available with a recessed top, a domed top, or with an open top for breathability.
Ruching
A French term meaning to gather, ruffle or pleat fabric into tight folds.
Running Stitch
A stitch used to permanently close a seam or to hold down gathers and pleats.

S

S Twist
Twist applied to a yarn to hold the fibers together. An 'S' twist is a left-hand twist.
Saddle Shoe
Flat shoe with a 2 tone vamp or instep.
Safari Jacket
Casual belted jacket with either patch or bellows pockets on top and bottom.
Safety Pins
A type of metal fastener with a point that is bent back to the head and held in a guard when closed. Most poular sizes used in sewing are 3/4" (2cm), 1" (2.5cm), 1 1/2" (3.8cm) and 2" (5cm).
Safety Stitch Seam
An overlock or serger machine that uses 5 threads to join 2 seams together with a chainstitch while at the same time, overlocking the edge.
Sailmaker Needles
Similar to leather needles, but the triangular point extends farther up the shaft. They are used for sewing thick canvas or heavy leather.
Sailor Collar
Flat square-back collar tapering to a V in the front.
Sailor Pants
Bell bottom pants with double-breasted button front opening worn by U.S. Navy sailors.
Sarong Skirt
Asymmetric wrap skirt with either side ties or other closure.
Satin
A type of fabric weave where the fabric is formed almost completely of warp or filler floats in the repeat of the weave. The result is a smooth, lustrous surface making it popular for eveningwear and bridalwear garments. Due to its inherent shine, a one-way layout of pattern pieces is required to avoid 'shading' on the finished garment.
Satin Organza
A semi-sheer-organza-like, lightweight fine satin weave fabric with a firm hand and a somewhat glossy surface. Avaliable in filament fibers such as silk, nylon, and polyester.
Saturation
The intensity, brilliance or strength of a color as compared to gray. A saturated color has no gray in it.
SBL
Acronym for shoulder blade level.
Scalloped Edge
Decorative edge mimicking the edges of a seashell.
Scarf
Accessory used around the neck for warmth.
Schmetz Color Coding
A brand of domestic sewing machine needles, with a top color band indicating the type of needle, and the lower color band indicating the size of the needle.
Scintillation
Two colors in the same visual space that seem to vibrate against each other.
Scissors
Handled instrument with two opposing sharp blades for cutting paper and fabric. It is advisable to dedicate your scissors for cutting paper only, and not fabric, to maintain the sharpness of the blades.
Scoop neck
Neckline shape that is low and curve and extends to the shoulders.
Scotch Tape
A brand name clear cellophane tape with an adhesive backing used in pattern making.
Screwdriver
Tool needed to unscrew various parts of a sewing machine, such as the needle, presser foot, etc. Screwdrivers come in a variety of sizes and shapes for each task.
Seam Allowance
Amount of extra material that extends beyond the stitching line.
Seam Binding
By-the-yard tape used to finish a hem or other raw edge of a garment. Also known as hem binding.
Seam Finish
Choosing the appropriate seam finish for a particular fabric and style, to keep the seam edge from fraying.
Seam Gauge
Ruler with an adjustable tab used to mark areas of a garment such as buttonholes, pocket placement and hems.
Seam Grading
Trimming seam allowances at different widths to eliminate bulk on the seam.
Seam Guide
Sewing machine device used to measure the distance from the needle to the stitching line while sewing. Can be a machine attachment or the magnetic type that can be placed on top of the machine surface.
Seam Ripper
Tool used to open seams or rip out stitches.
Seam Roll
A pressing aid, shaped like a sausage, and used when pressing straight and curved seams, or tubular shapes that fit over the seam roll.
Seamline
The stitching line of a garment.
Seamline Pocket
Pocket that is placed in the seam of a garment. Also known as an inseam pocket.
Seamstress
A person who sews garment samples or production garments. A seamstress who sews samples is also know as a samplemaker and one who sews production garments is also known as a sewing machine operator.
Secondary Hues
These hues are obtained by mixing two primary hues together; they are green, orange and violet.
Secondary line of composition
The secondary line of composition has slightly less influence than the major line of composition.
Seed Beads
Small beads with a center hole used as embellishment and in embroidery. Available in glass, metal, nylon, polyester and plastic, sold on a string or separately, in sizes ranging from 2mm-20mm. Attached by hand using braided beading thread or silk thread.
Self-lined
Sheer garments are either unlined or self-lined with the same fabric as the garment.
Self-threading Needle
A type of hand sewing needle that is designed for easy threading. Available needle types are those with a small groove on top for threading or those that can be threaded from the side. These needles are not recommended for use on fine fabrics as they tend to snag on the fabric yarns.
Selvage
Finished edges on fabric in the length or warp grain.
Semi Fitted Torso Sloper
Silhouette that is somewhat fitted to the body and ends at the end of the torso.
Semi-aniline Skin
Leather skin with a small amount of surface treatment to obscure marks and blemishes.
Separating Zipper
A zipper where both sides of the zipper separate from the another at the bottom. Types of separating zippers are those that are 'one-way', where the slider separates from the bottom, and a '2-way' with 2 pulls so the zipper can open and close from both ends. These zippers are available in different lengths, teeth types and widths and in a variety of colors. They are used for both functional and decorative purposes on all types of jackets, coats, parkas, dresses, shirts, pants and skirts.
Serger
A type of sewing machine, also known as an overlock, that uses between 2-5 threads to sew an overlocking stitch finish over one or more raw edges on seams and hems. They are available as stand alone domestic and industrial machines however, some domestic lockstitch sewing machines offer overlock capability.
Serging Thread
Polyester thread used for serging/overlocking available in a cone or a vicone.
Set-in Interfacing
Any non-fusible interfacing whereby the interfacing is stitched into the garments seams, as compared to fusible interfacings that are pressed or fused to a garment.
Set-in Sleeve
Sleeve that sits within a natural armhole as compared with a sleeve that sits in a drop shoulder or stylized armhole.
Setting a Straight Sleeve
Process of gathering a sleeve's cap and carefully mounting it to the armhole of a garment.
Sew-through Button
A buttton, with surface holes, that is stitched through the holes to a garment. The most common buttons are offered as 2-hole or 4-hole.
Sewing
To join together by either hand or machine stitches.
Sewing Gauge
A 6" (15cm) ruler used for measuring hems and other areas during garment construction.
Sewing Machine
A machine for sewing straight seams was invented in 1830 by Barthélemy Thimmonier but patented by Elias Howe in 1845. In 1850, Isaac Merrit Singer created an improved version that could sew curved seams, operated by a foot peddle. Then, in 1889 Singer invented the first electric sewing machine. Today the home machine is computerized and does more than just sew. They can embroider, create zig-zag stitches, make buttonholes and much more. Industrial machines have also evolved, each perfoming a specific function, such as lockstitch, chain stitch, coverstitch, overlock and safety stitch, button attaching, buttonholes, bar-tacking, pocket setting, flat felling, other specialized operations.
Sewing Machine Needles
A needle that is inserted into the sewing machine needle bar prior to stitching. The shank is the top of the needle, the shaft is the body of the needle, the groove is the slit that runs down along one side of the needle to its eye, and the point is the needle tip below the eye. The scarf is an indentation above the eye, on the opposite side of the needle groove. Sewing machine needles come in a variety of types and sizes for different materials and projects. Always refer to your sewing machine instructional guide when purchasing needles for your machine.
Shade
A hue mixed with black.
Shading
Variations in color, such as in a leather or suede skin, or in a velvet or other pile fabric where the nap causes shading.
Shank
Type of button with an extra piece under the button cap that makes it easier to pass a button through a buttonhole. Thread shanks can be added to sew-through buttons to get the same effect.
Shank
Type of button with an extra piece under the button cap that makes it easier to pass a button through a buttonhole. Thread shanks can be added to sew-through buttons to get the same effect.
Shantung
A light weight, plain weave fabric, made from uneven yarns to produce a textured effect, particularly in the weft. Similar to dupioni however, with many less slubs. Available in silk (in weight referred to as momme), in manufactured yarns and in different widths and colors.
Sharps Sewing Needle
General purpose hand-sewing needle with a round eye and a very sharp point. They are available in sizes 1-12. The length and thickness of the needle increases as the size gets smaller. For example, a size 1 needle will be thicker and longer, while a size 12 needle will be finer and shorter. A good all-purpose size sharps needle is an 8 or 9.
Shawl
Accessory used around the neck and upper body for warmth and style.
Shawl Collar
Collar that is cut in one piece or has a seam at center back that ends at the breakpoint of the front opening of garment.
Shearling
Leather tanned with the hair left on and not sheared off.
Shears
Instrument with two opposing sharp blades for cutting fabric. Fabric shears are generally heavier with one handle bigger than the other for better balance when cutting through layers of fabric. It is advisable never to use your fabric shears for cutting paper as this will dull the blades.
Sheath Dress
Semi-fitted dress that gets its shape by waist dart or a French dart.
Shell
Sleeveless top that buttons in back.
Shell Fabric
The outside of the garment.
Series Discount
A trade discount expressed as a series of discounts. See trade discount.
Shift
In patternmaking, the process of shifting a pattern to another area on a pattern. For example when shifting a dart from neck to shoulder.
Shift Dress
Dress that hangs straight from the underarm to the hem.
Shirr
To draw or gather together fabric as in gathering sleeve cap ease or the waistline of a gathered skirt.
Shirring
Running one or more stitches parallel to the other for the purpose of forming gathers. Three or more rows of gathers made by small running stitches in parallel lines.
Shirring Foot
Sewing machine attachment that is affixed to the presser foot lifter and used to gather or shirr fabric.
Shirring Stitch
A hand or machine stitch used to gather or shirr areas of a garment. Stitch length for machine or hand gathering is approximately 7-9 stitches per inch (2.5cm) with longer stitches for heavier weight fabrics. A sewing machine gathering foot attachment is also available.
Shirring Thread
Heavier thread used for gathering or shirring fabric areas of a garment.
Shirt Tailored
Refers to the hem of a classic men's shirt that is longer and curved at the bottom and higher at the sides.
Shirtwaist Dress
Dress utilizing design details of a me's classic tailored shirt.
Shirtwaist Sleeve
Dress with top styled like a tailored shirt, usually buttoned from neck to waist and made with either a full or straight skirt.
Shortages
When the physical inventory count is smaller than the book inventory indicates that it should be.
Short Knife
Short-handled blade tool used for cutting patterns out of leather skins on a special leather cutting board.
Short Shorts/Hot Pants
Shorts that end at the crotch line.
Shoulder Blade Level
Pants of any length cut to look like a skirt which hangs similar to a divided skirt
Shoulder Dart
Darts that are positioned in the middle of the shoulder. On the front, a shoulder dart vanishes at least 1/2" (1.3cm) away from the apex. On the back a shoulder dart is approximately 3" in length and aligns or is parallel with the princess seam.
Shoulder Pads
Objects used to add shape and structure to the shoulder of a garment. Made out of cotton or polyester, shoulder pads range in size and shape to fit the desired finished look of a particular design.
Shoulder Seam
Distance between the neckline and the armhole.
Shoulderline
Line on a dress form indicating the shoulder from neck to armhole ridge.
Shrinkage
A reduction in length and/or width caused by certain treatments such as washing or heat. Shrinkage can occur through steam pressing and/or the cleaning process.
SHS
Acronym for shoulder seam.
Sidebars
Minor areas of interest that occur when visually obstructive colors, shapes, or borders break up the surface of the composition into sections.
Side Dart
Bust dart emanating from the side seam to within 1/2" (1.3cm) away from the apex.
Side Dart Bodice
Bodice with a dart emanating from the side seam to the apex.
Side Pleats
Fabric folded in one direction and pressed flat creating a pleat.
Side Seam
Side of the body or the dress form.
Silamide Thread
A 2-ply pre-waxed nylon that is strong and smooth and used for hems, pad stitching, attaching zippers, buttons, hooks and eyes and for beading. Available on skien or a vicone or, in pre-cut lengths of approximately 1.25 meters, providing the optimum length for tailoring purposes.
Silhouette
The line or shape of a particular design.
Silk Buttonhole Twist Thread
A thick, strong thread commonly used for hand stitching and accent work. Buttonhole silk can also be used for beading and stringing pearls.Tex size 75 is perfect for hand-made buttonholes.
Silk Habotai
A fine, lightweight fine plain weave silk fabric, with a smooth, thin, limp hand. It is an excellent choice for lining and is available in different widths, colors and weights. The unit of weight for silk fabrics is expressed in terms momme. One momme is equal to 4.340 grams per square meter; 8 mommes is approximately 1 ounce per square yard or 35 grams per square meter. Also known as silk habutai. Polyester habotai is also available and used for lining.
Silk Organza
A lightweight silk sheer fabric with a somewhat firm hand and smooth texture. It is used for making blouses, dresses, pants and coats and can also be used as an interfacing and underlining. Available in a variety of colors. A heavier version of silk organza is silk satin organza and silk gazar.
Silk Pins
Thin steel pins that are easily placed into silk and other fine, lightweight fabrics.
Silk Shantung
A light to medium weight silk fabric identified by its distinctive slubbing and crisp drape and made with uneven yarns for a textured effect. Silk shantung is one of the most popular fabrics for bridalwear.
Silk Thread
One hundred percent silk thread is too strong for basic garment construction however it is a good choice for pad stitching fine wools and for embroidery.
Simflex Expanding Sewing Gauge
An expandable device for measuring and marking multiple equal distances accurately and quickly, such as button placement.
Simultaneous contrast
The effect that two colors have on each other when they are in the same visual space. All colors are perceived relative to the surrounding colors.
Single Edge-stitch Seam
Seam finish used for sheer seams where there is little to no stress, such as on very full skirts. It is also used to keep seam allowances minimally visible on sheer fabrics.
Single-Fold Bias Binding w/Crackstitch
A bias binding used on necklines, armholes, sleeve hems, pocket tops or any place where you are looking for a clean finished edge and where the stitches that connect the binding to the garment are almost invisible on the right side of the garment.
Single-Fold Bias Binding w/Edgestitch
A bias binding used on necklines, armholes, sleeve hems, pocket tops or any place where you are looking for a clean finished edge and where the stitches that connect the binding to the garment are visble on the right side of the garment.
Single-Fold Neck/ArmholeBinding
A bias binding used on necklines, armholes, sleeve hems, pocket tops or any place where you are looking for a clean finished edge and where the stitches that connect the binding to the garment are completely invisible on the right side of the garment.
Single-Welt Pocket
A single-welted inset slit pocket used on tailored clothing. Single welt pockets are often positioned horizontally or sligthly angled on tailored suit jackets. They can also be positioned vertically, such as on pants (trousers), skirts, casual jackets and coats. This pocket is also known as a jetted pocket.
Siri
A crisp fabric used mostly as interfacing, underlining and lining. Also known as designer sheet lining. Available in cotton and cotton blends and in soft and medium qualities.
Six-Month Merchandise Plan
Projects the sales, inventory, and profit goals for a department or an entire store for six months.
Sizing
Finish on fabric to give fabric added body.
Skeletal Profit and Loss Statement
A shortened form of the income statement.
Skin
The pelt of a small animal as compared to that of a hide which is a large animal.
Skirt
Lower portion of a dress or a separate garment starting from the waist to above or below the knee or ankle.
Skirt Length
Length of skirt from waist to hem.
Slash
The act of cutting into material to release it, as in releasing the neckline while draping or slashing into the waist when dropping a flare for a flare skirt.
Slash & Drop
A technique used in draping to add fullness, such as slashing into the waistline of a skirt muslin to drop in a flare.
Slash & Spread Method
Process used in patternmaking when adding fullness to a garment design such as slashing a sleeve sloper to create a puff sleeve.
Sleeve Band
Piece that is attached to the bottom to finish off a sleeve.
Sleeve Board
An small narrow ironing board used to iron sleeves and other areas of a garment.
Sleeve Cap
Top portion of a sleeve that is gathered and then set into an armhole.
Sleeve Centerline
On a straight sleeve, the line that is in the center of the sleeve cap and wrist, perpendicular to the bicep and elbow line. On a fitted sleeve, the centerline starts at the center of the sleeve cap but shifts at the wrist, once the elbow dart is closed.
Sleeve Header
Narrow pad made of cotton or poly batting used to add shape and structure to a sleeve cap.
Sleeve Placket
Piece of fabric that is attached to a slit to finish the sleeve.
Sleeve Sloper
A basic sleeve block that is made from body measurements and is the basis for all other sleeve stylizations.
Slide
Metal or plastic ornament that enables tabs on garments to adjust.
Slingback
Backless shoe with a back strap to hold the shoe in place.
Slip Stitch
A hand stitch that is used on hems and appliqué work. For a hem, the stitch begins by taking up one thread from the underside of the body fabric, then slipping the needle through the folded hem edge to hide the stitch, and repeating the process to complete the hem.
Slip Dress
Straight or semi fitted dress with shoulder straps.
Slip-Baste
Basting two layers of fabric together using a slipstitch.
Slippage
A problem caused when two fabrics or seams slide when plied or sewn. To avoid fabric slippage, place tissue paper in between and under layers before cutting. For seam slippage, baste seams before stitching, raise the stitch count, check your machine's thread tension and seam selection, be sure you chose the correct thread for the fabric and whether there is excessive lubricant on the thread.
Slipstitch
Hand stitch created by taking up one thread from the underside of the fabric, then slipping the needle through the folded edge of the hem to hide the stitch repeating the process to complete the hem.
Slit
Opening on a garment that adds movement such as on the side seam of a skirt, shorts, or jacket.
Sloper
Basic pattern or block without seam allowances. Slopers can be developed from body measurements or by draping on a dress form.
Slot Seam
A slot seam is a decorative technique, created by placing a strip of fabric underneath a seam to add dimension or contrast. It is often used on pockets, blouses, dresses, jackets, and coats.
Smocking
Decorative gathered stitch often seen on ethnic peasant blouses, the tops of skirts and pants and on childrenswear blouses.
Smoking Jacket
Formal styled jacket usually with velvet or satin collar either notch or shawl collared.
Snaps
Prong and socket closure made of metal or plastic used in place of a button and buttonhole.
Soft Thread Finish
Refers to natural cotton thread or spun thread with only a small amount of lubrication. This type of thread has a fuzzy surface.
Space
An open area of background in a 2-dimensional composition.
Spaghetti Strap
Narrow tubular straps made from fabric bias strips. Spaghetti straps are commonly used on evening dresses and other garments that require a delicate finish and minimal coverage.
Spandex
A synthetic fiber that has exceptional elasticity. Also known as elastomeric yarn, Lycra® and elastane.
Specialty Linings
Linings that are for specialty fabrics with specific end uses such as in activewear and outerwear.
Spectator
Two-toned flat shoe or pump made in contrasting colors of usually white and a contrasting color.
Spectral hues
The seven hues that can be refracted from the white light of the sun (ROYGBIV).
Spectral reflectance curve
The wavelengths of light that are reflected by a color and not absorbed into it. It determines the spectral hue of the color.
Spectrophotometer
An instrument that measures the light wavelengths that are absorbed into a surface of a material, to determine its color.
Spinning Wheel
A device used to spin yarn by hand.
Split complements
The two hues adjacent to the complement of a hue. For example, the complement of violet is yellow, but the split complements are red-yellow and green-yellow.
Split Skirt
Shorts that stop above the knee with front and back inverted pleats made to look like a skirt.
Spool
A cyclindrical device on which thread is wound. How it is packaged is known as a 'put-up'. Thread spools are stack-wound, with one row of thread parallel to the next. Stack-wound thread work best when placed on a sewing machine's vertical spindle.
Spool Cap
Sewing machine attachment used to secure a spool of thread to a sewing machine spindle.
Spread
To lay fabric out on a table.
Spread
The amount of distance on a men's shirt between the collar points.
Spun Thread
Staple fibers that are twisted together to make a single yarn or spun thread. The process of twisting staple fibers together creates a strong flexible thread. Two single yarns when twisted together a ply yarn or a plied yarn. Ply yarns are used for basic seam construction.
Squared Off
Patternmaking term that refers to creating a right angle at an intersection such as when trueing centerfront neckline and centerfront waistline.
SS
Acronym for side seam.
Stability
A shape that feels steady and unwavering.
Stabilizer
Material used to control areas of a garment to keep them from stretching, such as seams, or used as interfacing to add support to larger areas of a garment. Available as yard goods or on a roll, by-the-yard.
Stack-Wound
Thread spool wound with one row parallel to the next. A stack-wound spool is best when used on a sewing machine with a vertical spindle, allowing the thread to easily reel off the side. If placed on a horizontal spindle the thread may catch on the notch at the top of the thread spool.
Stadium Coat
Three quarter length coat with a hood and toggle closure.
Stand
The base of a dress form with wheels and a stand petal so that the form can easily be moved and raised and lowered.
Stand Collar
Collar with a neckband and collar attached.
Staple Fiber
A length of yarn that consists of many short fibers twisted together, such as cotton, linen and wool.
Static
A non-moving type of energy in a composition.
Stay
Material used to add stiffness and support to an area of a garment such as a plastic stay in the collar point of a shirt or a piece of web tape to support the shoulder of a knit top.
Staystitch
Machine or hand stitch used to control an area and keep it from stretching.
Stepping-stones
Elements with a graduating relationship that move the eye from one point to the next to help continuity within the composition.
Stiletto
Very high, high heel pump.
Stirrup Ski Pants
Pants with a piece of elastic or an all-in-one strap that goes under the foot to keep the pants in place.
Stitch
A single looping of thread or yarn made by hand or machine, which can vary in length and type.
Stitch Length
Amount of stitches per inch for a given fabric. The tighter the fabric weave the closer the stitch length. For example for a fine silk charmeuse you need 12 snitches per inch while a bulky thick wool boucle would require 6-8 stitches per inch, as would leather.
Stitch-in-the-Ditch
An inconspicuous machine stitch placed next to a previously stitched seam to hold down another area of the garment such as on a waistband, a facing or when making a Hong Kong bound hem finish.
Stitches-per-inch (SPI)
Amount of stitches per inch for a given seam and fabric. The tighter the fabric weave the closer the stitch length. For example, for a fine silk charmeuse 12 stitches per inch (12 stitches per 2.5cm) is recommended while a bulky, thick wool bouclé would require 6 - 8 stitches per inch (6-8 stitches per 2.5cm), as would leather, faux leather and vinyl. Stitches that are any closer on these materials will cause the seams to tear.
Stitching Line
The part that will be sewn on a garment such as a seamline or any area that will need a stitch.
Stock-Sales Ratio
A method of inventory planning that examines the beginning of month stock to the net sales for that month.
Stock Turnover
The number of times that the average stock turns into net sales (i.e., is sold) during a given period of time.
Straight Grain
In the natural direction of the weave, such as in line with the cross grain yarns or in line with the length grain yarns.
Straight Pins
Nickel-plated steel device used in draping, pattern making and sewing to hold fabric or paper while cutting and in draping to secure fabric to the dress form. Available in assorted sizes, thicknesses and lengths, depending upon the project. A straight pin consists of a head, shaft, and tip.
Straight Skirt Sloper
Skirt that hangs straight from the hip and acts as a basic bloc, without seam allowances, from which other skirt styles can be made.
Straight Sleeve
Sleeve that is straight from the underarm to the wrist and acts as a basic block with out seam allowances.
Straight Sleeve Sloper
Sleeve that is straight from the underarm to the wrist and acts as a basic block, without seam
Strapless Bodice
Bodice that is shoulderless with added support, such as bones, that are inserted into the seam allowance to give structure.
Stretch
A characteristic of knit and stretch-woven fabrics.
Stretch Lace
A knitted lace fabric with motif on a mesh ground, containing elastomeric (spandex/Lycra) yarn in combination with either nylon or polyester and with either 2 or 4 way stretch.
Stretch Linings
Linings that are knitted or woven with stretch yarns. They offer the wearer the most comfort.
Stretch Ratio
The degree of stretch of a particular knit fabric and determined both by its knit structure and the type of stretch fiber used.
Style Lines
Lines on a pattern or a drape that indicate the desired look and design of a garment.
Style Tape
By-the-yard tape with adhesive back used when designing and creating stylines on a dress form. Twill tape can also be used to create stylelines.
Stylepoint
Mark placed on the dress form indicating a desired design point.
Styling Curve
Tool used to true armholes and other curves areas on a pattern.
Subordinate
The element that is secondary to the main element in its influence in the composition. It is also known as sub-dominant or secondary.
Subtractive system
The system of mixing pigments to obtain color.
Suede
Inside of a leather skin worn on the outside and made to have a soft, napped surface.
Suit Sleeve
Sleeve that is slightly larger than a dress sleeve and that fits into the armhole of a set-in sleeve of a jacket.
Sumi Ink
Ink used for fashion illustrations when rendering with a brush.
Sundress
Dress with shoulder straps that can be stylized to hang straight or flare or any other variation.
Surplice or Surplus Wrap
Asymmetric wrap dress or top that cinches at the side of the body.
Sweatpants
Casual pants made of knit fabric worn for exercise.
Sweep
The amount of area at the bottom of a skirt, top, pants or other area of a garment.
Sweetheart
Neckline that is in the shape of a heart.
Symmetric
A mirror image from one side of a garment to the other.
Synthetic Fibers
Any fiber derived from synthetic polymers using a chemical process. Examples of synthetic fibers are: acrylic, nylon, polyester and spandex which are all derived petroleum products.
Symmetry
Equality of parts on either side of a center line or point when the shapes and their sizes and locations are a mirror image of each other.
Synaesthesia
A “condition” in which a person experiences one sense through another sense, such as hearing a sound, but also seeing it in color.

T

T-Shaped
Silhouette that is broad across the shoulder and column-like through the body.
T-Shirt
Casual knit top with rib trim jewel neck and short sleeves.
Tab
Piece of material used to adjust a garment when combined with snaps, buttons or D-rings. Tabs are used on various areas of a garment such as on pant waistbands and jacket waists.
Taffeta
A fine, crisp, plain weave fabric with a either a lustrous, or less often, dull face. The fabric is smooth, sometimes with a fine cross rib, and available in silk, cotton, wool and manufactured fibers of different widths, weights and colors. Silk taffeta is sold in units of weight known as momme. The higher the momme that heavier the weight.
Tailor Tacks
Temporary basting stitches that, when cut apart, leave threads that are useful to mark areas of a garment. Tailor tacks are often used won fabrics where a tracing wheel cannot be used such as fine fabrics and velvets.
Tailor's Chalk
Special removable chalk used for marking fabrics during the draping and sewing process.
Tailor's Knot
Knot formed when looping two threads together at the same time and then pulling them with your fingers to form a knot.
Tailored Edge Baby Hem
Narrow hem finish approximately 1/8- 1/4" (3mm-6mm) wide (long) made by machine and used on sheer fabrics such as organza, chiffon, georgette or any lightweight fabric. This finish can also be sewn using a hemming foot sewing machine attachment.
Tailored Sleeve
Set-in sleeve with darts at the elbow.
Tambour Hook
Device with a sharp pointed hook at one end used in combination with a hoop when chainstitching and stringing beads onto a fabric.
Tank Top
Sleeveless top with a U or scooped neckline.
Tanning
Process involved in converting a hide or skin into leather.
Tape Measure
Device marked with units of measure in inches or centimeters used to measure in patternmaking and draping.
Taped Seam
A 1/4" (6mm) wide twill tape used on seams to prevent stretching, particularly in key areas of knit garments.
Tapestry Needle
A needle with a large eye and a blunt tip used primarily for needlepoint stitching. Sizes range from 13-28. Size 13 being the heaviest and size 28 the finest.
Tech Pack
Package containing garment specifications and other pertinent details relating to the construction of a garment. Tech packs are compiled and then sent to the factory so that a prototype can be made.
Teddy
Above the knee sleepwear garment similar to a long camisole but usually with lace trim.
Temperature of Color
A word used to describe whether a hue has red in it, or blue in it. Those with red in them are considered warm; those with blue in them are considered cool.
Template
A shape or form used as a pattern or guide to be traced off and copied.
Tempo
How fast or slow musical notes are played.
Tension
Potential energy, where colors and shapes scintillate, or vibrate against each other. Tension is the feeling that something is about to move.
Tent Sloper
Silhouette that flares away from the body and ends at the torso. It is used as a basic sloper or can also be stylized.
Tent/Trapeze/Swing Coat
Coat that has a wide swing at the hem.
Tent/Trapeze/Swing Dress
Dress that flares out away from the body with a wide bottom sweep.
Terry Cloth
Knitted or woven fabric chararcterized by a front and back looped surface. The fabric is loftty and highly absorbant, therefore used for bathrobes, toweling and as an alternative when pressing napped fabrics, such as velvet and corduroy.
Tertiary Hues
These hues are the ones between the primary and secondary hues on the color circle.
Thermal-barrier Fabric
A lightweight, synthetic fabric designed with a thermal barrier, used in protective clothing for conserving a wearer's body heat, protecting against exposure to a severe heat or cold environment.
Terms of Sale
Delivery and payment terms agreed upon between the buyer and the vendor.
Theme
A melody; a complete musical phrase or expression.
Thigh
Fullest part of the leg between the criotch and the knee.
Thimble
Metal or plastic tool used when hand-sewing to help protect the fingers and to push the sewing needle through the material.
Thimble It
Product designed to stick to your fingers while you sew, to help push a hand-sewing needle through the fabric.
Thimble Sizes
A gauge template used as a guide when selecting which size thimble to use.
Thimble Types
A thimble is chosen based on the project and the wearer's comfort. Choices are many and the most popular include: dome-top thimbles for dressmakers, flat-top thimbles for quilters, open-top and band type for tailors.
Thong/String
Undergarment where the buttocks is exposed and the crotch covered.
Thread
Thin, twisted yarns available in different fibers, on a spool, used for sewing.
Thread Bar
A hand-made thread chain used as a loop for buttons, hooks, or lacings.
Thread Count
Number of yarns per inch in the warp and weft of a woven fabric.
Thread Finishes
Most common thread finishes are: soft, mercerized, glazed, bonded and lubricated.
Thread Heaven
A thread conditioning product made by Thread Heaven that enhances the performance of thread, making it easier for thread to glide through fabric during hand sewing.
Thread Shank
A hand-made thread extension technique used when attaching a sew-through button to a garment, achieving the same effect as a shank button.
Thread Sizing
Systems of thread sizing: Cotton Count (English Ne), Denier (French) and the Tex System (universal). The systems are further broken down into either a 'fixed-weight' system (cotton count, thread weight, metric count, and metric ticket), or a 'fixed length system' (denier and tex system).
Thread Tracing
A hand basting stitch used on a garment to mark hems, center lines, notches, stitching and button markings, in place of a tracing wheel and tracing paper.
Thread Types
The most common thread types are: spun, core-spun, monofilament, multifilament and textured. These thread types are used for: fine sewing, serging, all-purpose sewing, topstitching and specialty threads.
Thread Weight
Part of the thread sizing 'fixed-weight system' referring to the amount of thread required to weigh a specific amount. The 'thread weight system' is a variation of the 'cotton count system' and refers to the number meters needed to weigh one gram. A thread describes as '50 Wt' means that 50 meters of that thread weighs one gram. The higher the thread number the finer the thread. On a thread spool it is listed in parentheses as 'Wt.'
Three Quarter Circle Skirt
A skirt that is fitted at the waist, flares out at the hem, forming a hem sweep that is three quarters of a circle.
Three Quarter Circle Skirt Radius Calculations Chart
Chart with waist circumference and radius measurements for drafting a three quarter circle skirt.
Three-quartered Sleeve
Sleeve that ends a few inches below the elbow.
Throat Plate
Part of the sewing machine below the needle that covers the machine teeth.
Tie
Men's neck ornament worn under the collar of a men's tailored shirt. To interlock or fasten as in a tie belt.
Tiered Skirt
Layers of fabric, one larger than the other such as in a tired flounce skirt.
Tight Bodyline
A draping term used to identify a side seam prior to lowering the armhole and adding wearing ease at the side seam/armhole intersection.
Timbre
The sound quality of a note, related to the type of vibrations produced by the instrument; it is the difference in sound between various instruments.
Tint
A hue mixed with white.
Tissue Lamé
A lightweight, shiny, metallic fabric made with mylar yarn that has been woven with a white nylon filament. Available in a variety of colors, weights and widths and can be used as a lining material.
Toggle Button
Straight-lined skirt with a series of flounces cut in circular style, or on the straight of the material
Toile
A full muslin drape of a garment design that is ready for fitting.
Tomato Pincushion
A pincushion in the shape of a tomato that is used to hold pins. It is filled with either sawdust, walnut shells or emery sand and has a small strawberry shape attached at the top, filled with emery sand for sharpening pins when inserted.
Tone
A hue mixed with gray.
Topstitching
A stitch that accentuates the edge of a garment. Can be made by hand or by machine and is usually a longer than normal stitch made with either contrast, matching or silk thread to make the stitch more pronounced. Topstitching can range from close to the edge (edgestitch) to as much as 1" away from the finished edge.
Topstitching Thread
A thread size of tex 60 or metric ticket size 30, used to topstitch different areas of a garment.
Toreador Pants
Slim fit pants ending below the knee in the style of Spanish bull fighters.
Torso
On a dress form, the area from the neck to the end of the form.
Tracing Marks
Markings made on fabric to indicate stitching lines using tracing paper and a tracing wheel. For fine and sheer fabrics, tracing marks are made with thread stitches known as tailor tacks.
Tracing Paper
Transfer paper used in patternmaking and draping to copy lines when used with a tracing wheel.
Tracing Wheel
Tool with serrated or pointed edges used in conjunction with tracing paper to transfer lines and marks in draping and patternmaking.
Trade Discount
The percentage or a series of percentages deducted from the list price (i.e. the theoretical retail price recommended by the manufacturer). If expressed as series, e.g. 40%, 15%, 10%, they must be taken individually and in order.
Triangular chalk marker
A refillable chalk-marking tool with metal roller that draws chalk onto fabric as it is rolled across the fabric, making extra fine lines. Used in draping and sewing for making marks and for alterations. Also known as a chalk wheel.
Transparent
A clear surface that transmits light through it.
Translucent
A partially occluded surface that transmits diffused light through it.
Trapunto Stitching
Decorative quilting technique where a motif is outlined with filler between layers to create a raised effect.
Trench coat
Single or double-breasted belted coat with storm flaps, and epaulettes.
Triad
Three hues equidistant from each other on a color circle, such as the primary hues red, yellow and blue, or the secondary hues green, violet and orange.
Tricot Fabric
A warp knit lightweight used in the lingerie and loungewear markets. It is also used as a fusible interfacing for light to medium weight fabrics and for interfacing leather garments.
Tricot Fusible Interfacing
Knitted support material with gummed adhesive backing used in areas of a garment for support.
Tricot Interfacing
A warp knit interfacing used to interface knit, woven and leather garments. Available in different colors, widths, either fusible or nonfusible and different weights from featherweight to medium weight.
Trim
To cut away as in seam allowance on a garment. A decorative detail such as ribbon, braid or piping.
Trousers
Full length pants that are pleated or flat front.
True Bias
The 45 degree angle of a fabric, where maximum stretch is sought.
Trueing/Truing
In patternmaking and draping, a term that refers to connecting your lines to create a finished pattern.
Trumpet Skirt
Skirt that has a circular flounce at the bottom, resembling the end of a trumpet.
Tuck
Small pleat that is caught in the seam adding ease and movement to a garment.
Tulip Hand Sewing Needles
A brand of hand sewing pins and needles produced by the Tulip Co. LTD, a Japanese founded in Hiroshima in 1948. Their nickel-plated pins and needles undergo a polishing process that produces a superior quality.
Tulle
A soft, fine machine-made netting fabric with a hexagonal mesh, available in silk, cotton, or manufactured fiber. Also known as English tulle.
Tunic
One piece 3/4 length garment worn over pants or a skirt.
Turtleneck Collar
Collar that is fitted at the neck, folds over itself and usually made out of knit fabric.
Tuxedo
Formal pantsuit with a satin notched or shawl collar and stripe along the pant leg.
Tweezers
A dual pronged tool used in garment construction for removing basting stitches and as an aide in threading hand and sewing machine needles.
Twill
A twill weave fabric with a diagonal rib or twill line, usually running from left to right, though right hand twills are also available. Twill weaves produce a strong and durable fabric that are woven in cotton or cotton blends and also in manufactured fibers for a softer, more drapey hand, used as linings.
Twill Tape
Selvage edge tape used for creating stylelines on a dress form or for other uses when sewing a garment such as a stay or as a trim.
Twist Front
Women's blouse style with a twist at the front.
Two Piece Sleeve
A 2-part sleeve, with an under and an upper section used mostly in jackets where extra shape and ease are needed.
Two-Way Stretch
A knit fabric that can stretch 50 percent or more in the crosswise direction and 50-70 percent in the lengthwise direction.

U

U Neck
Scooped neckline that takes the shape of the letter "U."
Under Collar
Bottom or under collar patterned smaller than the top collar, depending on the thickness of the fabric, so that the edge of the under collar won't show once the collar is set into the neckline.
Under Pecs Width
On a men's body/form, the area below the chest/circumference.
Under stitch
A machine stitch that holds seam allowances together on the underside portion of a garment and keeps it from showing on the right side such as on a facing or under collar.
Underarm Cowl
Softly draped folds under the arm, achieved by cutting the fabric on bias.
Underarm Length
Length of the sleeve from under arm to the sleeve hem.
Underarm Stay
Piece of bias strip inserted into the underarm to keep the underarm stabile.
Undercollar
Bottom or under collar patterned smaller than the top collar, depending on the thickness of the fabric, so that the edge of the under collar won't show once the collar is set into the neckline.
Underlay
Amount of desired material under a pleat.
Underlining
Any material that is used under the fashion fabric for structure and support. Can be quilted, pressed on or hand-stitched in place.
Understitch
A machine stitch that holds seam allowances together on the underside of a garment and keeps it from showing on the right side such as on a facing or under collar.
Underwire
Metal wire used to shape a bra cup.
Uneven Basting
Simple hand stitch that starts with one small stitch approximately 1/4" long followed by another stitch 3/4" long repeated and used to temporarily mark the center front of bodices, dresses, sleeves or any other areas on a garment where thread markings are needed.
Unity
A composition has unity when all the elements work together toward a common artistic goal.
Universal Needles
A type of lockstitch sewing machine needle used on both domestic and industrial machines. It is the most common needle type, has a slightly rounded point can be used on knits and wovens.
Upholstery Needles
A long, heavy needle with a pointed tip, available either straight or curved. They are used for sewing heavy fabrics, upholstery work, tufting, and for tying quilts. Curved needles are used for difficult situations where a straight needle is not practical. Each type is available in a range of lengths and sizes.
Upper Armhole
Top section of an armhole.
Upper Collar
Top portion of a collar.
Upper Front Chest Width
Horizontal chest position on a body/dress form located 1" above mid-armhole, from left armhole to right armhole.

V

V-Neck
Neckline that forms a "V" on the front. However, a garment can also have a "V" back design detail.
Value
The lightness or darkness of a color. Black is the darkest of all colors, and therefore the lowest value possible. White is the highest value possible.
Value Scale
A range of achromatic values lined up in order from white to black.
Vanishing Point
Where a dart ends.
Vector
An imaginary and invisible line created by shapes in a composition, which determine the direction the eye moves.
Velcro
A tape made up of 2 parts, loops and mesh, that when they adhere to each other form a closure that can be used in place of a snap, hook & eye or button & buttonhole.
Velvet
A warp pile fabric with short, thick, closely woven cut pile on one side, available in silk, cotton, nylon, or blend.
Velvet Board
A flat flexible mat with a bed of tiny needles sticking up used for pressing napped fabrics to prevent damaging the pile of the fabric, such as velvet, velveteen and corduroy. Also known as a needle board. A terry towel is an inexpensive alternative for pressing pile fabrics, face-down on the towel.
Velveteen
A cotton or cotton blended fabric with a short, close filling pile, cut to resemble velvet.
Vent/Slit
Opening on a jacket, skirt, dress, blouse or pants to give movement.
Vertical
A line that is at a right angle to a horizontal line.
Vest
Sleeveless button though garment ending a the waist and commonly worn underneath a suit jacket.
Vicone
A tube-shaped spool on which thread is wound. How it is packaged is known as a 'put-up'. A vicone is cross-wound, forming an 'X' pattern and can hold 3,000 meters of cross-wound thread and therefore primarily used on overlock, chainstitch and coverstitch machines. They are generally too large to be used on domestic sewing machines.
Visible light spectrum
The electromagnetic waves from the light of the sun that are visible to us; we see them as color.
Visual weight
A color’s strength and ability to stand out relative to the other colors is due to a combination of elements: the color’s size, location, color and shape. Visual weight lends an object power and strength, and the ability to attract enough attention to be the focal point.
Voile
A light-weight sheer fabric made of hard twist yarns in low count plain weave. Available in cotton, silk, rayon, acetate, worsted and blends. It is often used as an interfacing for light-weight fabrics.
Volume
A 3-dimensional shape; a form.

W

Waist Dart
Dart that emanates from the waist and vanishes in the direction of the hip.
Waist Tape
Tape that is at the middle of the dress form.
Waistband
A band that is attached to the waistline of a skirt or pant (trouser) that provides a clean finish at the waist.
Waistline
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the wrist.
Wale
Describes the lengthwise row of stitches on a plain stitch or basic knit fabric. Also describes a row on corduroy fabric.
Walk the Tape Measure
Using the edge of the tape measure to measure the distance on a curve.
Walking Shorts
Shorts that end above the knee.
Warp
Refers to the lengthwise grain of a woven fabric.
Warp Knit
A knit fabric that is produced on a flat bed knitting machine in which the yarn zigzags along the length of the fabric in a vertical orientation.
Wavelength
An electromagnetic wave with a particular wavelength identifies each spectral hue.
Wearing Ease
Planning an extra amount in a drape or pattern draft for the wearer's comfort.
Weave
Refers to the three most common types of fabric weave: plain weave, twill weave, satin weave.
Wedge
Silhouette that is wide at the top and narrows at the bottom.
Weft
Refers to the crosswise grain of a woven fabric.
Weft Interfacing
A soft, weft knit interfacing, stable in both lengthwise and crosswise directions and used to interface softly tailored woven garments. Available in a polyester and polyester rayon blends, a variety of widths and colors, fusible and non-fusible.
Weft Knit
A knit that is produced either by hand or machine with horizontal rows of loops known as knit and purl stitches. Most knitted fabrics are produced by weft knitting.
Weights
Tool that is used to hold down fabric or paper during draping, patternmaking or sewing.
Welt
A design detail that is mounted onto or into a seam such as a welt pocket on the breast pocket of a jacket, or on a coat.
Western/Continental Pocket
Curved double welt pocket as seen on western shirts.
Whipstitch
Small, close together stitches made over a fold as a decorative touch.
White Pencil
Pencil used for marking or drawing lines on fabric.
Wide Straight-Grain Hem
A hem finish used on sheer fabrics where the bottom of the fabric is folded over itself, three times, and then hemmed using a blind stitch. This finish results on a weighty hem finish that can also be used on sleeve hems.
Wigan
Type of cotton interfacing used in tailoring.
Windsor/Cutaway
Pocket cut away at the top, usually in a curved manner, used on men's western or continental trousers.
Wing Collar
A stiff shirt collar with turned down points in front as seen on a men's tuxedo dress shirt.
WL
Acronym for waist level or waistline.
Wool Fabrics
Fabrics made from the hair of animals, such as from the fleece of sheep, goat, the undercoat hair of the angora goat or cashmere goat, or from the hair of an alpaca, camel, llama and vicuna. There is wide range of wool fabrics and fabric weaves available, ranging from featherwight wool gauze to heavyweight wool melton used for outerwear. Wool flannel and worsted wools fall into the medium weight category and are popular for suits.
Wool Flannel
A light to medium weight wool fabric of plain or twill weave with a slightly napped surface.
Wool Melton
A medium-to heavyweight twill weave, woolen fabric with a close-cut nap and a felt-like smooth surface.
Worsted Wool
Wool fabric manufactured using the worsted spinning system, producing a yarn that is compact, smooth, more even and strong.
Woven
Fabric that is made through the interlacing of yarns either at a right angle to each other to create a plain weave, or in a combination diagonal weave to create a twill and satin weave.
Wrap Coat
Coat made without buttons that is closed with a belt or sash.
Wrist
The joint that connects the forearm with the hand.
Wrist Circumference
Distance measurement around the wrist.
Wrist Pincushion
A type of pincushion that is worn on the wrist for an easy and convenient access to pins when draping and sewing.

X

Y

Yardstick
A ruler measuring 36 inches used in patternmaking and draping.
Yarn
A continuous strand of fiber that is either composed of short fibers that have been twisted together (as in cotton and wool fibers) or composed of endless filaments (as in synthetic fibers).
Yarn Darners
An extra long and thick darning needle with a blunt tip and very large eye so that yarn can easily pass through it. They are mostly used when joining knit and crochet pieces together and are available in sizes ranging from 14 to 18.
Yoke
Separate section of a garment such as the piece across the top back of a men's shirt, or at the front top of a Western shirt. Yokes can also be used on the tops of pants and skirts.

Z

Z Twist
Twist applied to a yarn to hold the fibers together. A 'Z' twist is a right-hand twist. Most sewing machines thread with a 'Z' twist.
Zigzag Seam
A machine-stitched seam, sewn using a narrow zigzag setting. The stitch is perfect when joining knits seams together, in the absence of a chainstitch machine, as the zigzag stitch allows for 'give' as the seam is stretched.
Zipper
Device made of metal or plastic used as a closure such as on the front of pants, on the back of a dress or as a decorative effect.
Zipper Foot
Sewing machine attachment that aides in the process of inserting a zipper into a garment. They are available for both the left and right side stitching.
Zipper Notch
Single or double notch, either at the side seam, center front or back of a skirt, dress or pant, to indicate the opening/length position of the zipper.