Terminology

A

A-Line Dress
A dress silhouette close to the body on top and flares out from the underarm to the hem.
A-Line Silhouette
Silhouette that comes in at the waist and flares out at the hem.
A-Line Skirt
A skirt that is close to the body at the waist and flares out at the hem.
Abattoir
A facility where animals are processed for various end uses such as for food and clothing.
Abstract
Nonrepresentational art; art with no object.
Accent
The area of a composition that attracts attention first; it has a strong contrast against the rest of the composition.
Accordion Pleats
Pleats that are smaller at the top and larger at the bottom.
Achromatic Hues
The hues that have no chroma, are not mixtures of chromatic hues, and are not in the spectrum. Black, white and gray are the achromatic hues.
Additive hue system
The colors we obtain when mixing together different wavelengths of light.
Adirondack/Lumberjack
Rugged looking jacket usually made of wool with front patch pockets, a collar, long sleeves and cuffs.
Adjacent hues
Hues that are next to each other on the color circle, such as yellow and orange.
Adjustable Tab
Used as a decorative touch or on the sides of pants, skirts, and jackets to allow for fit adjustments.
After-image
When we stare at a hue for a few seconds and then look away, fatigue causes the eye to see the after-image – a ghostly complement of the hue; also known as successive contrast.
Alencon Lace
Sheer lace with corded edge.
Analogous hues
Hues that are near each other on the color circle, and that share at least one primary hue. For example – red and violet, which share red.
Aniline Skins
Animal skins without any sprayed-on finishes.
Anorak
A type of rugged pullover outerwear jacket with a drawstring hip and hood.
Apex
The fullest part of the bust.
Appliqué
Applied fabric to a garment that is either hand stitched, embroidered or machine stitched to a garment.
Armhole
The section of a garment through which the arm passes through or where a sleeve is fitted.
Armhole Dart Bodice
A bodice where the dart emanates from the armhole to the apex.
Armhole Ridge
Area on the dress form where the shoulder seam and the natural armhole intersect.
Armplate
Metal plate on the dress form covering the arm socket.
Armscye
The circumference measurement of the armhole.
Ascot
Wide necktie worn looped over with ends cut diagonally and held in place by scarf pin.
Asymmetric
The principle of informal balance, rather than formal balance, with each side of the garment offering a different silhouette.
Asymmetrical
Any neckline which appears different on either side of center front, or closes to one side of center front of blouse or shirt.
Asymmetry
A lack of equality of shapes, colors and lines on either side of a center line or point.
Atmospheric
A quality of a color that makes it seem to have depth, like the sky.
Awl
Tool used to pinch holes into fabric or paper.

B

Background
The area behind the object in a composition; the ground or field.
Backing
Material used to add support to the underside of a fabric or other material. Can be fused or stitched into place.
Backstitch
Reverse stitch used to reinforce a seam or other area of a garment.
Balance
The organization of a composition (the arrangement of the colors, lines and shapes) on either side of the center line.
Balance Guideline
Mark or marks that are made on muslin to help control the grainlines during the draping process.
Ballet
Soft low kid shoe with thin sole and flat heel, sometimes made with drawstring throat. Inspired by shoe worn by ballet dancers.
Ballpoint Needle
Hand and sewing needles with a rounded ball tip for working with knits. Sizes from 5-10.
Balmacaan
Raglan-sleeved, loose-fitting style coat with small turned-down collar which buttons up front to neck.
Band
Collar which stands up around neck and buttons. May also be turned down in either front or back, to form two distinct types of collars.
Band Collar
Narrow band collar, usually between 3/4″-1 1/2″ wide. When the front ends of the collar are rounded, it is known as a Mandarin or a Nehru collar.
Bandeau
A strapless top that covers the bust ending at the waist or sometimes right under the bust.
Barriers
Design elements, such as low value colors, that form a barrier preventing the eye from moving past them. They may surround a focal point, or be aligned with the edge of the composition.
Bar Tack
Stitch that reinforces areas of stress on a garment such as the end of a pocket, They can be made by hand, using a zigzag setting on a sewing machine or with a special bar tack machine.
Barn Jacket
Hip length outerwear jacket , with low patch pockets and contrast or leather collar.
Baseball Jacket
A blouson, long sleeved jacket with a rib collar and cuffs.
Basting
Temporary stitches made either by hand or machine until they can be made permanent.
Bateau Neckline
Neckline that sits away from the neckline and forms a line from shoulder to shoulder. Also known as a Boat Neck.
Beading Needle
Long fine needle with narrow eye so it can beads and sequins can pass through. Sizes range from 5-15.
Beeswax
Cake of wax used during hand-sewing that aids the stitching process when thread is passed through it.
Bell Bottoms
Pants that are fitted through the leg and flare out at the hem.
Bell Sleeve
Sleeve that is set into normal armhole, is narrow at the top and flares wider at the hem.
Bellboy Jacket
Waist-length jacket with standing collar, two rows of brass or dyed to match buttons on front.
Bellows/Safari Pocket
Outside pocket made with center box pleat or inverted pleat that expands when pocket is used.
Belt Loops
Strip of fabric stitched onto a garment to hold a belt in place.
Bermuda Shorts
Shorts that stop above the knee.
Bertha
Wide flat collar designed to accent a woman’s shoulders.
Besom Pocket
Tailoring term for an inset pocket on a man’s suit jacket made with a narrow welted edge above the pocket opening. It is a double-besom pocket if both edges have welts.
Bespoke
Refers to a made-to-measure garment.
Betweens Needles
Also known as quilting needles. Betweens are shorter than sharps and have a small rounded eye for making fine stitches on medium heavyweight fabrics. They are mostly used in tailoring and quilting.
Bias Binding/Bias Tape
Cloth fabric cut on the bias and offered by the yard in single folded or double folded. Used to bind seams and hems or other edges of a garment.
Bias Cowl Dress
Fitted dress, cut on bias grain, forming a draped collar in front.
Bias Facing
Facing cut on diagonal or bias grain resulting in a softer roll line.
Bias Grain
The diagonal grain of a fabric that has the most stretch.
Bias Strip
Strip of fabric cut on the bias and can be used to make loops, encase a raw edge, inserted in a seam for control purposes, or any other use.
Bicep
Fullest part of the upper arm area between the elbow and the shoulder.
Bicep Line
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the bicep.
Bicep Circumference
Circumference of the bicep area of the upper arm.
Bicycle Shorts
Tight fitting shorts stopping above the knee made out of stretch fabric.
Bifurcated Dress Form
Neck to ankle dress form.
Bikini
Two piece skimpy swimsuit.
Bishop Sleeve
Sleeve that is full at the bottom and usually gathered into a cuff or band.
BL
Acronym for bust level.
Blazer
Traditional type of jacket with a notch collar.
Bleeding
When dye migrates from one material onto another.
Blend
Process of joining lines to form a smooth line or curve.
Blindstitch
Small machine or hand stitch used on hems. The thread is hidden in the fold so that the stitches are not visible.
Blocking
Process of manipulating muslin or other fabric so that the length and cross grain are at right angles to each other.
Blouse
Bodice garment that extends to above the hip.
Blouson
Type of design detail where fullness is gathered into a band such as on a blouse hem or at the bottom of a skirt or dress hem.
Bobbinet
Cotton tulle fabric used on corselets to add support and structure.
Bodice
Bodice silhouette that is fitted to the body, has shoulder and waist darts and ends at the waistline. It is used as a basic pattern sloper or can also be stylized.
Bodice Sloper
Silhouette that is fitted to the body, has shoulder and waist darts and ends at the hipline. It is used as a basic pattern sloper or can also be stylized.
Bodkin
Long, thick ballpoint needle with an elongated eye used for threading elastic, ribbon or tape through casings and other openings.
Bodysuit/Leotard
Tight fitting stretch garment that sometimes has a snap crotch opening.
Bolero Jacket
Jacket that sits at or above the waist and is usually collarless.
Bond Paper
White paper used for fashion drawing.
Boned Bodice
A bodice where boning or stays are used to create structure.
Boning
By-the-yard plastic material inserted into the seams of bustiers, corsets, bodices or any part of a garment where a structured look is desired.
Bow Tie
Man’s tie, square-cut or with shaped ends, tied in a bow under the chin.
Box Pleats
Type of pleating that forms small boxes beginning at the waist around the width of a garment.
Boxer Shorts
Women’s and children’s loose-legged panties of pull-on type.
Boxer/Trunks
Loose-legged panties of pull-on type
Boxy Torso Sloper
Silhouette that ends at the end of the torso and sits away from the body, not fitted.
Break Point/Break line
Point on a garment where the lapel turns back and where the closure is placed, such as on a notched collar jacket.
Breathing room
The empty space that can surround an object in a composition, and allow it to remain unobstructed and easy to see. Some elements need a substantial amount of breathing room around them, or else they seem crushed, cramped or overwhelmingly large for the area.
Bridle
Tape used on the lapel roll line of a jacket.
Brief/Panty
Women’s or girl’s very short panties sometimes made of control stretch fabric with garters added.
Briefcase
Handbag for woman executive which is of briefcase size and features small outside pockets for purse items
Brightness
The lightness or darkness of a color. A light color has brightness.
Brilliance
The intensity or saturation of a color; a measure of grayness of a color; chroma. Grayness is created by adding gray, black, white or the complement to a color. A high intensity color has brilliance.
Broken Hues
Also known as intermediary hues, they have been mixed with gray, black or white; two complementary hues can also make a broken hue.
Brush Tip Technique
A brush stroke technique used in fashion illustration whereby only the tip of the brush is utilized while illustrating.
Buckle
Closure usually made of metal or plastic used to close a garment.
Buckskin
Leather that has been tanned from a deer skin.
Buffalo
Leather skin tanned from a buffalo hide.
Built-Up Shoulder
Garment that has extra padding on the shoulder.
Bust Dart
Dart that ends at the apex and emanates from either the neck, shoulder, side seam or from center front.
Bust Form
Neck to waist dress form with bust cup demarcations.
Bustier
Tight-fitting strapless garment usually with bones in the seams for added structure.
Bustle
Silhouette with a protuberance on the back that extends from the waist to the hip or to the hem.
Button
Decorative ornament used as a trimming or as a functional fastener. Usually made with holes punched in center or a shank on the back, made to slip through a buttonhole or loop.
Button Loop
Thin strip of fabric stitched onto a garment as a closure for a button.
Button Loop
Button loop closure made of thread, cord or bias or non-bias fabric tubing.
Button Placket
Strip of fabric stitched onto a garment either as a finishing detail or as support for buttons and buttonholes.
Button-Down
Button and buttonhole used on the edge of a collar.
Buttonhole
Hole in which a button passes through to close a garment.
Buttonhole Twist
Heavy silk thread used in tailoring and to make handmade buttonholes.

C

Cable Cord
By the yard cotton rope used as filler to make cording or piping. Available in sizes ranging from 1/8″ -1″in diameter.
Caftan
A floor length, long-bell sleeved garment with a slit neck, based off of North African and Middle Eastern robes worn by men.
Calibration
An adjustment of two color-producing devices to help them communicate with each other and produce the same color. For example, a printer and a monitor can be calibrated.
Camisole/Cami
V-neck or scooped neck top with straps.
Camouflage
A decoration on objects to make them blend in with the background.
Cap Height
Vertical measurement from the bicep line to the shoulder/armhole intersection. The length of the bicep to the cap of the sleeve.
Cap Sleeve
Short sleeve ending at or above the bicep with little to no cap ease.
Cape
Garment the covers the body, usually sleeveless though having holds for the arms, worn as a coat.
Capline
Top of the vertical line that measures the bicep to the shoulder/armhole intersection of a sleeve.
Capri/Pedal Pushers/Clam Diggers
Tight-fitting three-quarter length pants, usually with short slit on the outside leg.
Cardigan
Collarless jacket ending at or slightly below the waist.
Cargo Pocket
Large batch pocket, usually used on shorts and pants.
Carpenter Pants
Pants with extra pockets and a loop on the side leg to hold a hammer tool.
Casing
Tunnel made of fabric through which a belt or elastic is encased.
Cat Suit
Skin tight, one piece garment, usually ankle length and with long sleeves.
Catchstitch
Hand hemming stitch resembling a cross-stitch pattern with a series of back stitches starting from left to right, alternating on the body and then the hem.
Center Back
Vertical line denoting the center of the back of a garment.
Center Front
Vertical line denoting the center of the front of a garment.
Chantilly Lace
Delicate net-like lace with a scalloped edge.
Chemise/Shift
Straight-cut dress with few darts and no waistline.
Cheongsam/Qui Pao
A silhouette that references a Chinese-styled dress, made with mandarin collar, short sleeves, and a long slit on one or both sides of the skirt.
Chesterfield Coat
Semi-fitted, straight-cut classic man’s or woman’s overcoat in single or double breasted style, usually with a black velvet collar.
Chiaroscuro
A technique in art that uses variations of highlights and shadows to achieve a 3-dimensional effect.
Child color
In transparency, the child color is created from the two parent colors that are mixed together.
Chroma
The intensity or brilliance of a color; chroma is the opposite of grayness.
Chromatic Hues
Chromatic hues include the spectral hues and their mixtures. If these hues are mixed with achromatic hues, they still are chromatic hues. Only black, white and gray are not chromatic hues, because they have no chroma.
Cinch
Waistline or area that is pulled in very tightly, usually with a wide tie belt.
Circle Skirt
Skirt whose hem circumference forms a circle.
CL
Acronym for crotch level.
Clean Finish
Refers to any method used to finish the edge of an area of a garment such as facings, hems, etc.
Clear Plastic Ruler
Ruler marked with inches or centimeters on clear plastic used in draping, patternmaking, sewing and art so that underneath lines and markings are visible.
Clip
To snip into as in clipping into seam allowance to release a curved seam.
Clippers
Small spring-loaded scissors used to open stitches, seams and assorted other uses in sewing and draping.
Clog
Shoe made with thick sole of wood or cork and the upper is made of leather, cloth, or faux leather.
Closure
The Gestalt principle of perception whereby we perceive a whole shape even when it is missing some edges.
Closures
Any type of garment closure such as buttons, frogs, snaps, clips, toggles, buckles, D-ring, loop and button, Velcro, lacing or zipper.
Coachman Coat
Double-breasted coat with large, wide lapels, fitted waistline, and flared skirt. Frequently has a cape collar and brass buttons.
Coatdress
Style of dress that mimics a coat.
Cocoon Coat
Wrap coat with rounded shoulders and deep batwing sleeve.
Cold Tape
By-the-yard tape with an adhesive back used on leather and suede garments to add support in stress areas such as at the crotch, the armhole and along the zipper as well as other parts of a garment.
Collar Fall
Area from the collar roll to the collar’s edge.
Color
The result of a combination of a hue, a value and a level of intensity.
Color circle
An illustration of all spectral hues, placed in a circle, with the longest wave hue (red) meeting the shortest wave hue (violet).
Color space
All the colors that a color-producing device (such as a monitor or a printer) can make.
Color management system
In software, a way of translating the light-based RGB profile of the computer monitor to the pigment-based CMYK profile of printing.
Color Relationship
Colors relationships are defined by their distance from each other on the color circle; for example, color relationships include complements and triads.
Complement
The hue opposite another hue on the color circle. For example, red is the complement of green.
Composition (2-dimensional)
The arrangement of colors, lines and shapes on a 2-dimensional surface that are intended to be a work of design.
Concave
A curve shaped like part of the interior of a circle.
Concave Curve
Curve that goes in, not out.
Cones
Photoreceptors in our retinas that allow us to see color. There are three different types of cones, each of which can absorb one of the three primary hues of light.
Contour Dart
Dart with shape: curved, convex, concave or fisheye.
Contrast
The effect that one color, line or shape has on another due to their differences. Their placement near each other would allow comparison and intensify their particular properties.
Continuity
The visual path or process of moving through the composition.
Convertible Collar
A rolled collar that converts two ways, meeting at center front or open, creating a notch collar effect.
Convex
A curve shaped like part of the exterior of a circle.
Convex Curve
Curve that out and not in.
Corselets
Inner structure of a dress that adds shape and support.
Corset
Type of woman’s stiffened undergarment with boning and/or stays, laced in front or back.
Cossack
Blouse or tunic silhouette with full sleeves with small cuff and a stand collar.
Couching
Invisible stitching technique used to secure braid, ribbon or other passementerie in a decorative pattern to the surface of a fabric.
Couture
Made-to-measure high-end clothing. Couturier refers to a male designer, couturiere a female dressmaker or designer.
Cowl
Draped folds forming a soft stylized neckline or collar.
Cowl Neck Back
Draped folds forming a stylized neckline on the back of a garment, usually cut on bias grain.
Cowl Neck Blouse
Blouse with a draped cowl neckline cut on bias.
Cowl Neck Front
Draped folds forming a stylized neckline on the front of a garment, usually cut on bias grain.
Cowl Sleeve
Draped folds forming a stylized effect, usually cut on bias grain, on the top of a sleeve.
Cowl Yoke
Inset piece or yoke that is usually cut on bias grain, forming a draped cowl effect.
Crease
Technique used to form a fold or a line such as, down the middle on the front of trousers, or in patternmaking to help fold the paper, or in draping to form a mark on the fabric.
Creaseline
Line formed when folding a pattern over to form a crease.
Crewel Needles
Also known as embroidery needles. Crewel needles have a longer eye for threading multiple strands of thread but otherwise are identical to sharps.
Crimping
A machine stitch that eases fabric into an area of a seam.
Cropped
When the length on a garment, or part of a garment is shortened.
Croquis Figure
Refers to a rough sketch in fashion drawing.
Cross Grain
Grain that goes from selvage to selvage, also known as the weft. Ways to identify muslin cross grain are: 1) perpendicular to length or warp grain, 2) has some stretch to it but not as much as bias grain 3) fuzzier yarn with more slubs than length grain and 4) when folded will not lay flat as length grain, but will be a bit bouncy.
Crossmarks
Marks made when draping that indicate an intersection such as at the side seam/underarm, the shoulder/armhole or any place where 2 lines intersect.
Crotch Depth
Distance from waist to crotch level plus desired ease.
Crotch Extension
Area on a trouser pattern where the crotch measurement extends from center front and center back.
Crotch Length
Combined measurement on the front and back crotch seamlines taken from front waist to back waist.
Crotch Level
Area on a pattern measured from waist to where the crotch starts.
Crystal Pleating
Type of mini pleats seen on dresses, skirts or other areas of a garment.
Cuffs
Band that ends the bottom of a sleeve or a detail on the bottom of pants or shorts that turns up over itself.
Culottes
Knee length pants with inverted pleats on center front and back to give a skirt-like look.
Cummerbund
Sash-like waist wrapping, often pleated to add a decorative touch.
Cup & Fold Method
In patternmaking and draping, when you cup the paper or fabric to make it easier to true the dart.
Curvilinear
The curvy quality of lines or shapes.
Cut Lines
Where seamlines are placed on a garment for a better leather yield.
Cutting Line
In patternmaking and draping the cutting line refers to the outside line of the seam allowance on a pattern and the stitching line on a sloper.
Cutting Mat
Rubber self-healing cutting mat used in patternmaking or for cutting fabric with a rotary blade cutter.

D

Dart
Term for a v-shaped stitched tuck that is used to create shape in a garment.
Dart Legs
The length of a dart, from start to vanishing point.
Dart Length
The length of a dart, from start to vanishing point.
Dart Manipulation
Concept of how to move darts to different areas on the body.
Dart Shape
Shape of a dart, concave, convex, fisheye, straight or curved.
Dart Size
Width and length of the dart pick-up.
Dash
A mark of about 1/4″ long made on a draped muslin indicating areas of the garment such as the front and back waistline, dart pick-up and hemlines.
Dhoti Pants
Pant silhouette that is gathered at the waist with an elongated crotch, tapering at the ankle.
Diameter
The width of a circle such as the diameter of a button.
Differentiation
Making a product stand out from the competition in some way, either because of its physical appearance, or through the benefits that it offers to the customer.
Direction
The orientation of a line or shape in a composition. The direction can be horizontal, vertical or diagonal.
Dirndl Skirt
Skirt style where fabric is gathered into a waistband or a yoke.
Doc Martens
Popular iconic workboot with air-cushioned soles made popular in the 1960s.
Dominant
The element that has the greatest influence on a composition is said to be dominant. Dominance can exist in color, line, shape or size of area. The second most influential element would be called sub-dominant, secondary or subordinate.
Dot
Mark used in draping to indicate areas such as the waistline, neckline, side sea, armhole and hem.
Double Hiding
When the upper layer of a leather skin separates from the inner layer.
Draping
Process of creating clothing designs by manipulating muslin around a dress form in a three dimensional way resulting in a pattern.
Drawstring
A tie inserted into a tunnel or loops either at the waist or on an other area of a garment. When pulled it forms a gathered effect.
Dress Form
A replica of the human body made out of paper mache (more expensive) or out of fiberglass (less expensive) and then covered in cloth so that pins can be sunk into it during the draping and fitting process.
Dress Maker Pins
Medium weight pins made of steel used in sewing, draping and patternmaking.
Drop Shoulder Blouse
Blouse silhouette where the sleeve cap is moved away from the natural shoulder and the underarm is droppe, creating a more casual look and fit.
Dropped Armhole Sleeve
Relaxed sleeve with little to no cap ease, set into a drop shoulder armhole.
Dropped Waist
Silhouette whereby the natural waist is dropped at or near the hip level.
Duffel
Car coat or a shorter length coat fastened with toggles rather than buttons introduced during WWII and worn by men in British Navy
Dye lot
A batch of dye solution, associated with its color; each batch varies from other batches because of atmospheric differences or qualities of the dye itself.
Dynamic
Energy in a composition that makes the shapes and lines appear to be moving.

E

Ease
Allowing extra measure to the pattern or drape such as at the bust, waist, hip, side seam, sleeve, underarm, crotch, or anywhere else on the pattern so that the garment fits comfortably.
Ease Pinch
Adding an extra measure to the drape, usually between 1/8″ – 1/4″, so that the garment fits comfortably.
Eisenhower Jacket
Waist length, collared, long sleeve jacket made popular by former President Eisenhower.
Elastic
Stretch material sold by the yard.
Elements of color
Hue, value and intensity are the three factors or elements that make up a color.
Elements of composition
Color, line and shape are the three factors that are used to form a composition.
Elbow Circumference
Total measurement taken around the elbow of the arm.
Elbow Dart
One or 2 darts at the elbow to create a fitted sleeve.
Elbow Line
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the elbow.
Embroidery Needles
Also known as crewel needles. Embroidery needles have a longer eye for threading multiple strands of thread but otherwise are identical to sharps.
Empire
Dress with high waistline just under the bosom defined by an inserted piece of fabric or a seam.
Empire Line
Horizontal styleline that sits underneath the bust.
Energy
The visual movement in a composition. Energy could be tension, dynamic energy, static energy or passive energy.
Envelope
Large narrow handbag made in the shape of a correspondence envelope, usually of clutch-type without handle.
Epaulet
Tabs that are sewn onto a garment such as on military jackets. Historically to hold a soldier’s hat or gloves.
Espadrille
Rope-soled shoe with canvas, leather or faux leather upper. Sometimes they are tied at the ankle.
Even Basting
Simple hand stitch approximately 4-6 stitches per inch used to temporarily hold one or more layers of fabric together.
Extension
Area on a garment where the button and buttonholes or other closure sit.
Extraneous object
An element in a composition that prevents it from being balanced and needs to be removed to achieve balance.

F

Fabric
Yarns that are assembled to be either woven, knitted, felted, braided, netted or bonded together to create material or cloth.
Face
Refers to the right side of the fabric.
Facing
Section on a garment used to clean finish that area for example on a neckline, armhole or pocket top.
Faggoting
Decorative open-worked hand stitch resembling a ladder.
Field
The background, or ground, of a 2-dimensional image; the area surrounding the object.
Figure
The object of a composition; not the background.
Fingerpress
Using your fingers to press an area of the garment flat such as a dart or seam allowance either before or after you have ironed the area.
Fisheye Dart
Curved dart that adds shape to a garment.
Fitted
When a garment sits close to the body.
Fitted Sleeve
Sleeve that has darts at the elbow and is used as a sloper.
Fitted Torso Sloper
Silhouette that is fitted to the body and ends at the bottom of the dress form’s torso.
Fitting
Process of checking to see how a muslin or garment fits so that adjustments can be made.
Flange
Type of stitched and open pleat.
Flap
Section of a garment that covers a pocket.
Flare
Extending out from a straight or natural line such as on a sleeve or the side seam of a skirt, pant or dress.
Flared Skirt
Skirt that extends out from a straight line side seam version.
Flared/Straight Grain-Center
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain on center front and center back.
Flared/Straight Grain-Middle
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain in the middle of each front and back panel.
Flared/Straight Grain-Side
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain on the side seams.
Flat
Low heeled, flat shoe. A technical drawing of a garment used in a tech pack, on a spec sheet or in presentation materials such as line sheets and presentation boards.
Flat Brush Technique
A brush stroke used in fashion illustration that utilizes the side of the brush on the paper when adding paint or ink to an area of the illustration.
Flat Collar
Collar with little to no stand around the neck.
Flat Fell Seam
Type of seam finish whereby one seam allowance covers the other. Often used on jeans or seams where extra strength is required.
Flat Pattern
Two dimensional patternmaking technique used to create designs using paper.
Flex Curve
A flexible measuring device used to measure armholes or other curved areas on a pattern, garment or dress form.
Flounce Hem
Separate ruffled or gathered piece added to the bottom of a garment as a design detail.
Fluted
Rows of tiny pleats in fabric resulting in a 3 dimensional effect.
Fluting
An illusion in a value chart where each gray appears to change value slightly at the borders of its two neighboring values. Fluting, also known as Mach Bands, illustrates how the value of any color makes an adjacent one as different from it as possible.
Focal point
The area of a composition that creates an attraction for the eye, keeping the eye focused on it.
Fold
When a fabric or paper is folded over itself to form an edge.
Fold Line
Place on a pattern where to turn up or under such as at the hem of a garment.
Forecasting
In reference to forecasting color, this refers to trend-spotting companies that determine the colors that will be popular a couple of years in the future. Manufacturers rely on this information to help guide them with their color choices.
Form
A shape that appears to be 3-dimensional in a 2-dimensional composition; a volume.
Fray
When raw edges of a fabric start to unravel.
French Cuffs
Cuff on a sleeve that is folded over itself and is usually larger than a regular shirt cuff.
French Curve
Tool used to create curved lines in draping and patternmaking.
French Dart
Bust dart emanates from the side seam close to the waistline resulting in a semi fitted shape.
Fringe Edge
Technique of fraying the fabric yarns to create a fringed edge.
Full Skirt
Any skirt made with several widths of fabric, cut in a complete circle, made with many gores or gathered.
Funnel Neck/Built-Up
Type of neckline where the garment is built up at the shoulders and center back creating a close to the neck effect.
Fusible Interfacing
Support material with a press-on adhesive backing that when ironed with pressure onto the wrong side of a fabric, adds structure to that area. Fusible interfacings are available in various weights, colors and woven non woven.

G

Gamut of color
The range of color, such as those that the eye can see, or those that can be produced by a color-producing device.
Garment Bias
Any bias grain that is not necessarily a 45 degree angled bias.
Gather
Compressing fabric into a smaller amount such as when shirring fabric in a dirndl skirt, or as ruffles.
Gaucho Pants
Wide cropped women’s pants stopping below the knee mid-calf.
Gestalt principles of perception
As identified by psychologist Max Wertheimer, the way we organize objects that we see to help us determine their importance, based on factors such as their similarity or proximity.
Gimp
A cord used to add support to a buttonhole.
Glovers Needle
Triangular or wedge tip sewing needle used on leather, suede and faux leather. Comes in sizes 3/0-10.
Goethe’s proportions
Goethe proposed the concept that pairs of complements are best used together in specific proportions. For example, green and red should each have 50% of the area.
Godet
Triangular piece inserted into a garment at the hem or the sleeve to give extra fullness.
Godet Skirt
A triangular piece of fabric inserted upward from the hem of the skirt to give more fullness
Gored Skirt
Skirt with panels which fits through the waistline and flares out on each panel at the hem.
Gorge line
Seam that joins the collar and neckline at the lapel.
Gouache
Painting technique used in fashion illustration using gouache paints, consisting of pigment, which are then suspended in water.
Gradient
Several values of one hue (monochromatic) that are lined up in sequence from lightest to darkest. Gradient can also refer to shapes or lines placed in size order.
Grading
Increasing and or decreasing a base size pattern to fit various sizes. To reduce layers of seam allowance to reduce bulk when sewing a seam such as around the collar/neckline of a coat.
Grain
Term used to describe the yarn direction of a fabric: crossgrain (weft), lengthgrain (warp) or diagonal (bias). Also decribes the smooth side of a piece of leather after tanning.
Grain Side
Outside part of a leather skin.
Grainline
Direction of yarns in a fabric weave: crossgrain (weft), length grain (warp), diagonal (bias).
Graphite Pencil
Lead pencil used in fashion drawing.
Grommets
Circular rings with center holes to pass ties or laces through.
Grosgrain
By-the-yard ribbon with small grooves used as trim.
Ground
The background of a 2-dimensional image, placed behind the object.
Guide Lines on Muslin
Marks made on muslin indicating grain and used to balance or control the muslin during the draping process.
Gusset
A piece of fabric inserted into an area of a garment to permit greater movement. Gussets are used at the underarm, the pant crotch on sides of handbag and shoes to create a wider opening.

H

Hair Canvas
Support material used in jackets and coats or in garments where a more structured look is desired.
Halter Top
A top with a strap encircling the neck used to support the garment to the body, leaving the shoulders and the back bare.
Ham
Ironing tool, shaped like a ham, used when pressing certain shaped areas of a garment.
Hand
The feel of a fabric: smooth, stiff, soft, drapey, rigid, crisp or pliable.
Hand Baste
Simple hand stitch approximately 4-6 stitches per inch used to temporarily hold one or more layers of fabric together.
Hand Pick Stitch
A hand stitch with a small stitch pick-up. It is used either as a decorative holding stitch such as around a lapel edge, or in place of a machine stitch to securely hold a zipper in place such as on pile fabrics.
Handkerchief Hem
Pointed design detail on a dress, blouse or skirt hem that mimics the points of a handkerchief.
Harem Pants
Bouffant pants gathered into bands at the ankles.
Harmony
Colors that are pleasing together are said to be in harmony with each other.
Hem
Finished portion of a garment such as a sleeve, skirt, dress or pant bottom. Or, the act of finishing the end of a garment.
Hem Allowance
The amount of fabric allocated to hemming an area of a garment.
Hem Binding
By-the-yard tape used to finish a hem or other raw edge of a garment. Also known as seam binding.
Hem Marker
Tool that measures from the floor up, the hem of a garment. Usually using chalk.
Hemline
Line that denotes the bottom of the hem before it is turned up and finished.
Hemming Stitch
A simple running stitch that temporarily keeps the hem up before it is permanently stitched.
Hide
The skin of a large animal such as a hose or cow.
High Neck Cowl
Softly draped design detail that sits high on the neck.
High Point Shoulder
The shoulder/neck intersection point on a dress form or a garment.
Hiking/Cargo Pants
Casual pants with large bellows pockets on the side legs and back.
Hip
Area of the figure measured at 7″ down from the natural waistline.
Hip Curve
Tool with a curve that is used in draping and patternmaking to true the hip and assorted other areas of a pattern.
Hip Level
Horizontal styleline that is measured at 7″ down from the natural waistline and is level to the floor.
Hip-Hugger
Pants cut below the natural waistline, usually resting on the hip bone, sometimes lower.
Hipline
Pants cut with fullness on both the outer and inner seams to give a bell flare at the hem.
HL
Acronym for hip level or hipline.
Holding Stitch
A machine or hand stitch used to hold gathers, pleats or other area of a garment in place, before a permanent stitch is made.
Hong Kong Finish
Type of seam or hem finish where the edges of each seam are opened and bound with fabric.
Hook and Eye
Two part metal closure that hooks into a loop and is often used on garment waistbands, tops of zippers and other areas, to close a garment.
Horsehair
By-the-yard stiffening material used to add structure to areas of a garment such as hems and collars . Available in various widths and colors.
Hue
The color name, such as red, blue, green and yellow, based on the length of the light wave.
Hymo
Type of hair canvas interfacing available in different weights and either fusible or non-fusible.

I

Illuminated
An area brightened up or lit by light from another source; also the decoration on a manuscript.
Implied curvilinear
A curvy movement indicated by the placement of a series of shapes on a curve in a composition. It is implied because no curvy line is actually drawn.
Inseam
Seam area on a garment such as the inside of a pant leg or the inside length of a sleeve. Men’s pants sizes are measured from this length.
Inseam Pocket
Pocket that is hidden or inset into a section a garment such as in a seam.
Inset Armhole
The seam in men’s trousers, from the crotch to the them. Leg length for men’s pants is measured by this seam.
Inset Pocket
Pocket that is cut into a garment such as a welt pocket on a jacket.
Intensity
The saturation, chroma, brilliance or strength of a color as compared to gray. A high intensity color has no gray in it. Low intensity colors have more grayness, and are created by adding gray, black, white or the complement to a color.
Interfacing
Support material used on areas of a garment to give the it, shape, body and support. Can be woven, non woven, fusible or non-fusible.
Interference phenomenon of light
The obstruction of a ray of light with another medium such as oil, which causes a different hue to appear; also known as iridescence. We see interference colors in oil slicks, butterfly wings, bird feathers and the inside of oyster shells.
Interlining
Material used inside coats and jackets for warmth such as polyfil or goose down.
Interstitial
A narrow area that is in-between two shapes.
Inverted Pleated
Type of pleat that is hidden under two pieces of fabric on a garment.
Iridescence
The interplay of rainbow-like hues that arises from interference of light waves by another medium such as oil or bird feathers. Objects that produce iridescence are opals, butterfly wings, peacock feathers, the mother-of-pearl that we see inside oyster shells, and oil slicks.
Iron
A device used to flatten an area or areas of a garment.
Ironing Board
Padded and covered device used to iron garments and various other areas of garments.

J

Jabot
A rugged collar detail that sits at the neck of a shirt or blouse.
Jams
Type of patterned or printed shorts worn as beachwear or casual wear.
Jeans
Casual indigo blue denim or colored twill pants with back patch pockets, and 2 front top pockets.
Jewel Neckline
Round neckline that fits close to the neck and accentuates the wearer’s jewelry.
Jodhpur Pants
Riding pants with narrow legs that widen substantially at the hips.
Juliet Sleeve
Long sleeve with short puffed top and fitted on the lower arm and wrist.

K

Kangaroo Pocket
Pouch like pocket on the front of a garment.
Keyhole
High round neckline made with a teardrop or keyhole piece cut out at the center front.
Kick Pleat
Pleat on a skirt or dress that adds movement to the circumference of that garment.
Kilt
Pleated skirt, usually made from plaid fabric that wraps to one side and is held in place with a large pin ornament.
Kimono
Wrap robe silhouette of Japanese origin where either the body and sleeves are cut as one or where sleeves are straight and set in at right angles to the body.
Knickers
Type of short pants, ending right below the knee with a cuff and are fastened with either a buckle, button or elastic.
Knife Pleat
Sharp even one directional pleats measuring 1/2″ to 1″ to 1″ wide.

L

L-Square
Tool shaped like an “L” used in draping and patternmaking.
Lace Edge Binding
Type of lace binding used to finish the edges of hems or as a decorative detail.
Lacing
Using cord or fabric strips to close a garment as on the front of pants, skirts, corsets or anyplace where a decorative closure is desired.
Lantern Sleeve
Two piece sleeve that flares out to form a lantern-like effect.
Lapel
The turn back portion of a front opening, where the closure starts on the front.
Layered Skirt
Skirt made of tiers in varying lengths
Leather
Technically all animal skins are leather however the name leather is most often associated with the fur-bearing or outside of a leather skin, also known as nappa or the grain side.
Leg o’Mutton Sleeve
Sleeve with full top gathered or pleated into armhole and tapered to wrist where it looks like a regular sleeve.
Length Grain
In a plain weave textile lengthwise, also known as the warp, is the strongest grain. Ways to identify muslin length grain are: 1) parallel to the selvage, 2) has little or no stretch to it, 3) length grain yarns are stronger and smoother, unlike crossgrain yarns which are slubby, and 4) when folded it lays flat unlike the crossgrain which will be a bit bouncy.
Lengthwise Grain
In a plain weave textile the lengthwise, also known as the warp, is the strongest grain. Ways to identify muslin length grain are: 1) parallel to the selvage, 2) has little to no stretch to it 3) length grain yarns are stronger and smoother, unlike crossgrain yarns which are slubby, and 4) when folded it lays flat unlike the crossgrain which will be a bit bouncy.
Line of composition
The major orientation of the lines in a composition; the type of line in the composition that has the most influence over the mood and artistic message. There is often a secondary line of composition with slightly less influence.
Linear perspective
Lines and forms on a 2-dimensional surface that give the illusion of distance.
Lining
Separate garment made out of lightweight material that lines the inside of a garment adding shape and comfort while covering the inner seams and structure of the outer shell.
Local color
The color ascribed to an object irrespective of the lighting situation. We don’t really know whether every object has its own local color, since we only see relative to the lighting situation.
Loop Turner
Metal tool with a latch and hook end used to turn fabric tubings inside out.
Luminous
Radiating or reflecting light; the source of light.
Luster
The gleam of reflected light that we see on fabrics such as silk or leather. Within the category of luster are the qualities of luminosity and iridescence.

M

Machine Basting
Long temporary machine stitches sewn at approximately 4- 6 stitches per inch which are later snipped every few inches and removed.
Magic Rub Eraser
White eraser used in fashion drawing.
Mandarin Collar
Standing-band collar that extends up on neck not quite meeting at center front.
Marker
Schematic plan of graded pattern parts by size of a particular garment style. Markers can be made manually or by computer.
Marking
The act of placing pencil, chalk or pen marker notations while draping to indicate areas that will later be trued on the table.
Mary Jane
Shoe with a strap covering the instep of the foot.
Master Pattern
Name given to the original graded patterns for a particular style from which copies or tracings are made.
Match
To line up, as in matching notches or a plaid or stripe, at the side seam on a given style.
Mechanical Pencil
Lead pencil with holder used in patternmaking.
Mercerized Cotton
A chemical finish added to thread to give strength and luster.
Metamerism
A pair of colors that are different under one light source but appear to be the same under another type of light source. They are a metameric match. This difference in their appearance happens because the colors are not a spectral match; that is, they do not have the same spectral reflectance curve.
Metameric match
Two samples of colors, as in paint, that look different under different light sources.
Meter
In music, meter is the beat; the background pulse that you feel that makes you want to tap your foot.
Middle Gray
The value we call middle gray appears to be the point halfway between black and white.
Middy/Sailor collar
Flat collar that is wide in the back then tapers into nothing in the front.
Midriff
A top silhouette that ends under the bust leaving the rib cage bare.
Midriff Yoke
A separate piece on a top, blouse or dress that hugs the rib cage of the body.
Milliners Needle
Needles that are longer than sharps and used for basting, pleating and by milliners.
Minaudire
A small jeweled handbag usually used for eveningwear.
Miter
A diagonal seam at a square corner, such as at the bottom of a skirt vent or sleeve vent. Also, when a plaid or stripe comes together at a 45 degree angle such as on a side seam.
Moccasin
Shoe based on footwear worn by Native Americans.
Monochromatic
Having one hue.
Mood Board
Presentation board used to help sell a designer’s collection concept for a particular season.
Motorcycle Jacket
Zipper front black leather jacket ending right below the waist with several pocket zippers. Worn by motorcycle gangs such as the Hell’s Angels.
Muffler
Accessory used around the neck for warmth.
Mushroom Pleating
Type of thin pleating resembling the underside of a mushroom cap.
Muslin
Plain weave fabric used in draping and available in a variety of weights, from fine to heavy.

N

Nap
The direction of the pile on a fabric such as velvet or corduroy. Patterns must be layed-out in one direction, usually nap smoothed up, before cutting.
NB
Acronym for neckband.
Neck Dart Bodice
Bodice where the dart emanates from the neckline and vanishes at the apex.
Neckband
Thin strip of fabric inserted into a neckline and used as a collar or collar stand.
Neckline
Contour of the neck from front to back.
Negative space
The background surrounding the lines and forms in a 2-dimensional composition.
Nehru Collar
Type of stand collar popularized by Indian Prime Minister Nehru.
Nightgown
One piece sleepwear garment.
Nightshirt
One piece sleepwear garment reminiscent of a man’s shirt.
NL
Acronym for neckline.
Non-woven
Fabric that is made by fusing fibers together as in interfacing and felt material.
Norfolk Jacket
Single breasted jacket with vertical front pleats and a self belt.
Notch Collar
Type of collar that when connected to a neckline lapel, creates a notch like effect.
Notch Collar Blazer
Classic jacket style with notch collar and patch pockets.
Notcher
Metal tool used to make notches on patterns.
Notches
Marks made on patterns to indicate where seams align, where hems are turned and other key matching points that are necessary when constructing a garment.
Nubuck
Grain side of leather that has been sanded or buffed to give a slight nap finish.

O

Oak tag
Heavy weight paper, green on back, manila-colored on face, used for pattern slopers.
Obi
Sash-like belt as seen on a Japanese Kimono.
Object
The figure in a representational composition; the opposite of the background.
Opaque
A surface that transmits no light through it, made of materials ranging from soft fabrics or rubber to hard materials like plastic or metal.
Open-Ended Dart
Dart that is not sewn to the vanishing point.
Organic
A word that describes lines or shapes that are curvy and do not follow the shape of a recognizable geometric form; lines or shapes with no sharp edges.
Organza
Sheer fabric with some rigidity to it. Available in cotton, silk or a blend.
Orientation
The direction in which a line or shape leads.
Overcast Seam
Seam finish done either by machine with a zig-zag stitch or by hand using an overcast stitch.
Overcast Stitch
A diagonal hand stitch covering an edge, to keep the edge from fraying.

P

Padstitch
Hand stitches made on the diagonal joining 2 pieces of cloth together to add shape and structure such as on the under side of a jacket collar and lapel.
Pajama
Two Piece sleepwear garment.
Palazzo Pants
Long wide-legged pants.
Pant Form
Bifurcated dress form waist to ankle.
Paper-bag Waist
Pant or skirt design detail that is cinched in at the waist usually with a drawstring and ruffles on the top.
Parent color
In an illustration of transparency, the parent color is one of the two that are mixed together to produce a “child” color.
Parallel Dart
Side by side darts.
Parka
A hooded outerwear jacket ending at the hip or slightly lower.
Passive energy
Acceptance of, or a non-moving obstruction to, nearby elements. Curves are examples of passive reaction to the adjacent elements.
Patch Pocket
Pocket that sits on top of a garment.
Pattern
A predictable arrangement of lines and shapes using repetition and other techniques.
Pattern
Paper or muslin guide of a garment design which is cut out of fabric.
Pattern Layout
Arranging pattern pieces of a garment on fabric or paper to get the best possible yield.
Pattern Making
Two-dimensional method of creating a garment or accessory using pattern paper.
Pea/Reefer Jacket
Double-breasted outerwear jacket popularized by the U.S. Navy.
Peaked Lapel
Notch collar effect where the lapel points up.
Peasant Blouse
Ethnic style blouse with a gathered top and waist. Sometime will be smocked or embroidered.
Peasant Sleeve
Full sleeve gathered at top and sewn into a band or cuff at the bottom.
Peg-Top Skirt
Skirt with a gathered or pleated full waist that tapers at the bottom.
Pegged Pants
Pants with a gathered or pleated full waist and that taper at the ankle.
Pencil Leg/Stovepipe/Cigarette
Slim fitting pants that are the same width at the knee and at the ankle.
Penny Loafer
Flat shoe with a place to insert a coin on the vamp or instep.
Perception
The way the human brain shapes our understanding of what we see.
Peplum
Skirt like effect created either in one piece or as an insert into the waist.
Perfecting
In patternmaking, a term that refers to defining your lines.
Petal/Tulip Sleeve
Sleeve that wraps across the front creating a petal effect.
Peter Pan Collar
Flat collar with rounded ends in the front.
Petersham
Support material heavier than grosgrain and used as an interfacing.
Pick Stitch
Small hand stitch used for sewing areas of the garment in place of a machine stitch such as the zipper on velvet and around the collar of a jacket lapel.
Picture Plane
The flat surface – the paper or canvas – of the 2-dimensional composition. It is a vertical plane. The top, bottom and side edges of the composition define the limits of the picture plane, and we say they are on the picture plane level.
Pigment
Coloring matter in the form of insoluble powder, which is mixed with an aqueous or oil base to make paint.
Pilgrim
Flat collar extending onto the shoulder with pointed front ends.
Pin
Steel device used in patternmaking and sewing to hold fabric or paper while cutting and in draping to secure fabric to the dress form.
Pin Basting
Using pins to hold layers together before sewing or during a fitting.
Pin Tuck
Narrow stitched down tuck usually in clusters used as decorative details on blouses as well as other areas of a garment.
Pink
Using a pinking shears to finish the edge of a fabric to keep it from fraying or as a decorative touch.
Pinking Shears
Scissors with a serrated blade used to finish the edges of seam or as a decorative touch.
Piping
Folded strip of cloth, sometimes with a cord insert, sewn into a seam or on a garment edge as a trim.
Piping Edge
Decorative trim used to finish edges of a garment.
Pitch
In music, how high or how low the notes are.
Pivot
The act of holding in one place with a pencil or pin and then shifting a pattern to another direction, for example when shifting a dart from shoulder to the side seam.
Pivot Method
In patternmaking, the process of shifting a pattern to another area on a pattern. For example when shifting a dart from neck to shoulder.
Pivot Point
The place where a pivot takes place such as at the vanishing point of a dart or at the apex.
PL
Acronym for princess line.
Placket
Piece that clean finishes an area such as along center front or on a sleeve, allowing for buttons and buttonholes.
Plate Screw
Screw in the middle of the metal plate of a dress form’s armhole.
Pleat
To fold material flat and either stitch down or leave loose to add extra fullness to a garment. Or, the act of turning material over and pressing it flat.
Pleat Depth
Fold of fabric usually pressed flat but sometimes left unpressed. When used in a skirt, blouse or dress, it is sometimes stitched down at the top of the garment to make it hang better.
Pleat Underlay
Amount of material allotted to create a pleat.
Ply
The act of laying one layer on top of another.
Pocket
Garment detail that can be applied in different ways: on top as in a patch pocket, as a bag-type that is inset into a garment as in a welt pocket, or sewn into a seam as in an inseam pocket.
Point
The end of something such as the end point of a dart.
Polo Shirt
Short sleeved knit shirt with a ribbed collar and half placket front.
Positive space
The objects in a composition.
Preshrunk
Fabric that has been shrunk before cutting to avoid additional shrinkage once the garment is sewn and pressed.
Press
Ironing a garment or fabric. Always best to iron with the direction of the grain.
Presser Foot
Sewing machine attachment that holds the material in place during the sewing process.
Presser Mitt
Padded mitt used to press areas of a garment where an iron can’t reach.
Pressing Cloth
Piece of fabric used while pressing a garment to avoid shine marks on the right side of fashion fabric.
Pressure & Release brush stroke
A brush stroke technique used in fashion illustration. The process of applying pressure on the tip of the paint brush as you stroke and then releasing the pressure as you lift the brush off the paper. This technique covers the area with paint or ink and results in the pooling of paint or ink which adds depth to the illustration.
Presto Correction Pen
Tool used to make corrections to fashion drawings.
Primary Hues
These hues cannot be attained by mixing other colors. Red, yellow and blue are the three pigment primary hues; red, blue and green are the three primary hues in light.
Princess Bodice
Any dress with fullness protruding in back from waist to hem.
Princess Dress
Dress with vertical stylelines that on the front start at mid shoulder, go through the apex, continues straight down and end at the hem. On the back the princess line starts at mid shoulder, curves along the middle of the back and ends at the hem.
Princess Kimono
One piece bodice and sleeve garment, traditional to Japanese costume.
Princess Lines
Stylelines that divide the middle of each panel of the front and back of a garment. Princess lines must transect the apex or be placed within 1″ of the apex for proper fit.
Princess Seam
Seams of a princess line design.
Profile
A description of the color space of a printing or viewing device; a list of all the colors it can produce based on its system of primary hues. Because devices such as scanners and printers, and monitors, have different systems of primary hues, they have different profiles.
Proximity
In the same area.
Puff
Short sleeve that is gathered at the top and at the bottom.
Puff-Top Sleeve
Short sleeve gathered, either at the armhole or at the cuff band or both, producing a rounded shape.

Q

Quilted
Two fabrics stitched together either by machine or by hand with a layer of batting in between to create a raised effect.
Quilter Ruler
Clear plastic ruler with holes in the middle along the length of the ruler.
Quilting Needles
Also known as betweens needles. Quilting needles are shorter than sharps and have a small rounded eye for making fine stitches on medium to heavyweight fabrics. They are mostly used in tailoring and in quilting.

R

Radial balance
Balance that is achieved by elements that start in the center and move out along a radius, like the spokes of a wheel.
Radius
The line measured from the center of a circle.
Raglan Armhole
Stylized armhole that starts either at the neckline, the shoulder or at center front and ends below a traditional set-in sleeve armhole.
Raglan Sleeve
Sleeve that fits into raglan armhole.
Redingote
A coat belonging to an dress/coat ensemble.
Refraction
Light waves bend and split up into their component parts when passing through a medium such as the lens of a prism. We call those component parts the seven spectral hues.
Relationship of hues
Several relationships exist as a result of the distance the hues are from each other on the color circle – for example, complements.
Released Dart
Slightly fitted coat matched to a dress to make an ensemble
Representational art
Art that looks like real life objects.
Rever
Refers to a lapel on a jacket, blouse, vest or coat.
Reverberation
A quality of sound that makes it seems to come from different locations, making the audio space bigger or smaller.
Rhythm
In music, how the beat sounds over time; how the sounds link to each other.
Riding/Hacking/Equestrian Jacket
Single breasted jacket cut full at the hip for horseback riding or sometimes can be pleated in the back to add extra fullness.
Rip-out
Process of removing sewing stitches.
Rods
Photoreceptors in our retinas that allow us to see light and dark.
Roll line
The line at which a collar turns over as in a roll collar.
Rolled Collar
Collar that sits high on the back neck and whose neck shape is a straighter line than that of a flat collar.
Rolled Cuff
Extension of the sleeve which is folded up to form a turned-up cuff.
Roller Tool
Tool used to flatten seams on leather and suede.
Rotary Blade Cutter
Cutting device used in combination with a cutting mat to cut fabric and paper.
Round Brush
Paint brush used in fashion illustration. Available in assorted sizes.
Ruffled Hem
Nylon bag with straps fitting over shoulders so that it can be worn on the back
Running Stitch
A stitch used to permanently close a seam or to hold down gathers and pleats.

S

Saddle Shoe
Flat shoe with a 2 tone vamp or instep.
Safari Jacket
Casual belted jacket with either patch or bellows pockets on top and bottom.
Sailor Collar
Flat square-back collar tapering to a V in the front.
Sailor Pants
Bell bottom pants with double-breasted button front opening worn by U.S. Navy sailors.
Sarong Skirt
Asymmetric wrap skirt with either side ties or other closure.
Saturation
The intensity, brilliance or strength of a color as compared to gray. A saturated color has no gray in it.
SBL
Acronym for shoulder blade level.
Scalloped Edge
Decorative edge mimicking the edges of a seashell.
Scarf
Accessory used around the neck for warmth.
Scintillation
Two colors in the same visual space that seem to vibrate against each other.
Scissors
Handled instrument with two opposing sharp blades for cutting paper and fabric. It is advisable to dedicate your scissors for cutting paper only, and not fabric, to maintain the sharpness of the blades.
Scoop neck
Neckline shape that is low and curve and extends to the shoulders.
Seam Allowance
Amount of extra material that extends beyond the stitching line.
Seam Binding
By-the-yard tape used to finish a hem or other raw edge of a garment. Also known as hem binding.
Seam Finish
Choosing the appropriate seam finish for a particular fabric and style, to keep the seam edge from fraying.
Seam Gauge
Ruler with an adjustable tab used to mark areas of a garment such as buttonholes, pocket placement and hems.
Seam Grading
Trimming seam allowances at different widths to eliminate bulk on the seam.
Seam Guide
Sewing machine device used to measure the distance from the needle to the stitching line while sewing. Can be a machine attachment or the magnetic type that can be placed on top of the machine surface.
Seam Ripper
Tool used to open seams or rip out stitches.
Seamline Pocket
Pocket that is placed in the seam of a garment. Also known as an inseam pocket.
Secondary Hues
These hues are obtained by mixing two primary hues together; they are green, orange and violet.
Secondary line of composition
The secondary line of composition has slightly less influence than the major line of composition.
Selvage
Finished edges on fabric in the length or warp grain.
Semi Fitted Torso Sloper
Silhouette that is somewhat fitted to the body and ends at the end of the torso.
Semi-aniline Skin
Leather skin with a small amount of surface treatment to obscure marks and blemishes.
Set-in Sleeve
Sleeve that sits within a natural armhole as compared with a sleeve that sits in a drop shoulder or stylized armhole.
Setting a Straight Sleeve
Process of gathering a sleeve’s cap and carefully mounting it to the armhole of a garment.
Sewing
To join together by either hand or machine stitches.
Shade
A hue mixed with black.
Shading
Variations in color, such as in a leather or suede skin, or in a velvet or other pile fabric where the nap causes shading.
Shank
Type of button with an extra piece under the button cap that makes it easier to pass a button through a buttonhole. Thread shanks can be added to sew-through buttons to get the same effect.
Shawl
Accessory used around the neck and upper body for warmth and style.
Shawl Collar
Collar that is cut in one piece or has a seam at center back that ends at the breakpoint of the front opening of garment.
Shearling
Leather tanned with the hair left on and not sheared off.
Shears
Instrument with two opposing sharp blades for cutting fabric. Fabric shears are generally heavier with one handle bigger than the other for better balance when cutting through layers of fabric. It is advisable never to use your fabric shears for cutting paper as this will dull the blades.
Sheath Dress
Semi-fitted dress that gets its shape by waist dart or a French dart.
Shell
Sleeveless top that buttons in back.
Shell Fabric
The outside of the garment.
Shift
In patternmaking, the process of shifting a pattern to another area on a pattern. For example when shifting a dart from neck to shoulder.
Shift Dress
Dress that hangs straight from the underarm to the hem.
Shirring
Running one or more stitches parallel to the other for the purpose of forming gathers. Three or more rows of gathers made by small running stitches in parallel lines.
Shirt Tailored
Refers to the hem of a classic men’s shirt that is longer and curved at the bottom and higher at the sides.
Shirtwaist Dress
Dress utilizing design details of a me’s classic tailored shirt.
Shirtwaist Sleeve
Dress with top styled like a tailored shirt, usually buttoned from neck to waist and made with either a full or straight skirt.
Short Knife
Short-handled blade tool used for cutting patterns out of leather skins on a special leather cutting board.
Short Shorts/Hot Pants
Shorts that end at the crotch line.
Shoulder Blade Level
Pants of any length cut to look like a skirt which hangs similar to a divided skirt
Shoulder Pads
Objects used to add shape and structure to the shoulder of a garment. Made out of cotton or polyester, shoulder pads range in size and shape to fit the desired finished look of a particular design.
Shoulder Seam
Distance between the neckline and the armhole.
Shoulderline
Line on a dress form indicating the shoulder from neck to armhole ridge.
SHS
Acronym for shoulder seam.
Sidebars
Minor areas of interest that occur when visually obstructive colors, shapes, or borders break up the surface of the composition into sections.
Side Dart Bodice
Bodice with a dart emanating from the side seam to the apex.
Side Pleats
Fabric folded in one direction and pressed flat creating a pleat.
Side Seam
Side of the body or the dress form.
Silhouette
The line or shape of a particular design.
Silk Pins
Thin steel pins that are easily placed into silk and other fine, lightweight fabrics.
Simultaneous contrast
The effect that two colors have on each other when they are in the same visual space. All colors are perceived relative to the surrounding colors.
Sizing
Finish on fabric to give fabric added body.
Skin
The pelt of a small animal as compared to that of a hide which is a large animal.
Skirt
Lower portion of a dress or a separate garment starting from the waist to above or below the knee or ankle.
Slash
The act of cutting into material to release it, as in releasing the neckline while draping or slashing into the waist when dropping a flare for a flare skirt.
Slash & Spread Method
Process used in patternmaking when adding fullness to a garment design such as slashing a sleeve sloper to create a puff sleeve.
Sleeve Band
Piece that is attached to the bottom to finish off a sleeve.
Sleeve Board
An small narrow ironing board used to iron sleeves and other areas of a garment.
Sleeve Cap
Top portion of a sleeve that is gathered and then set into an armhole.
Sleeve Header
Narrow pad made of cotton or poly batting used to add shape and structure to a sleeve cap.
Sleeve Placket
Piece of fabric that is attached to a slit to finish the sleeve.
Sleeve Sloper
A basic sleeve block that is made from body measurements and is the basis for all other sleeve stylizations.
Slide
Metal or plastic ornament that enables tabs on garments to adjust.
Slingback
Backless shoe with a back strap to hold the shoe in place.
Slip Dress
Straight or semi fitted dress with shoulder straps.
Slip-Baste
Basting two layers of fabric together using a slipstitch.
Slipstitch
Hand stitch created by taking up one thread from the underside of the fabric, then slipping the needle through the folded edge of the hem to hide the stitch repeating the process to complete the hem.
Slit
Opening on a garment that adds movement such as on the side seam of a skirt, shorts, or jacket.
Sloper
Basic pattern or block without seam allowances. Slopers can be developed from body measurements or by draping on a dress form.
Smocking
Decorative gathered stitch often seen on ethnic peasant blouses, the tops of skirts and pants and on childrenswear blouses.
Smoking Jacket
Formal styled jacket usually with velvet or satin collar either notch or shawl collared.
Snaps
Prong and socket closure made of metal or plastic used in place of a button and buttonhole.
Space
An open area of background in a 2-dimensional composition.
Spectator
Two-toned flat shoe or pump made in contrasting colors of usually white and a contrasting color.
Spectral hues
The seven hues that can be refracted from the white light of the sun (ROYGBIV).
Spectral reflectance curve
The wavelengths of light that are reflected by a color and not absorbed into it. It determines the spectral hue of the color.
Spectrophotometer
An instrument that measures the light wavelengths that are absorbed into a surface of a material, to determine its color.
Split complements
The two hues adjacent to the complement of a hue. For example, the complement of violet is yellow, but the split complements are red-yellow and green-yellow.
Split Skirt
Shorts that stop above the knee with front and back inverted pleats made to look like a skirt.
Spread
To lay fabric out on a table.
Spread
The amount of distance on a men’s shirt between the collar points.
Squared Off
Patternmaking term that refers to creating a right angle at an intersection such as when trueing centerfront neckline and centerfront waistline.
SS
Acronym for side seam.
Stability
A shape that feels steady and unwavering.
Stadium Coat
Three quarter length coat with a hood and toggle closure.
Stand Collar
Collar with a neckband and collar attached.
Static
A non-moving type of energy in a composition.
Stay
Material used to add stiffness and support to an area of a garment such as a plastic stay in the collar point of a shirt or a piece of web tape to support the shoulder of a knit top.
Staystitch
Machine or hand stitch used to control an area and keep it from stretching.
Stepping-stones
Elements with a graduating relationship that move the eye from one point to the next to help continuity within the composition.
Stiletto
Very high, high heel pump.
Stirrup Ski Pants
Pants with a piece of elastic or an all-in-one strap that goes under the foot to keep the pants in place.
Stitch Length
Amount of stitches per inch for a given fabric. The tighter the fabric weave the closer the stitch length. For example for a fine silk charmeuse you need 12 snitches per inch while a bulky thick wool boucle would require 6-8 stitches per inch, as would leather.
Stitch-in-the-Ditch
An inconspicuous machine stitch placed next to a previously stitched seam to hold down another area of the garment such as on a waistband, a facing or when making a Hong Kong bound hem finish.
Straight Grain
In the natural direction of the weave, such as in line with the cross grain yarns or in line with the length grain yarns.
Straight Skirt Sloper
Skirt that hangs straight from the hip and acts as a basic bloc, without seam allowances, from which other skirt styles can be made.
Straight Sleeve
Sleeve that is straight from the underarm to the wrist and acts as a basic block with out seam allowances.
Strapless Bodice
Bodice that is shoulderless with added support, such as bones, that are inserted into the seam allowance to give structure.
Style Lines
Lines on a pattern or a drape that indicate the desired look and design of a garment.
Style Tape
By-the-yard tape with adhesive back used when designing and creating stylines on a dress form. Twill tape can also be used to create stylelines.
Stylepoint
Mark placed on the dress form indicating a desired design point.
Styling Curve
Tool used to true armholes and other curves areas on a pattern.
Subordinate
The element that is secondary to the main element in its influence in the composition. It is also known as sub-dominant or secondary.
Subtractive system
The system of mixing pigments to obtain color.
Suede
Inside of a leather skin worn on the outside and made to have a soft, napped surface.
Suit Sleeve
Sleeve that is slightly larger than a dress sleeve and that fits into the armhole of a set-in sleeve of a jacket.
Sumi Ink
Ink used for fashion illustrations when rendering with a brush.
Sundress
Dress with shoulder straps that can be stylized to hang straight or flare or any other variation.
Surplice or Surplus Wrap
Asymmetric wrap dress or top that cinches at the side of the body.
Sweatpants
Casual pants made of knit fabric worn for exercise.
Sweep
The amount of area at the bottom of a skirt, top, pants or other area of a garment.
Sweetheart
Neckline that is in the shape of a heart.
Symmetric
A mirror image from one side of a garment to the other.
Symmetry
Equality of parts on either side of a center line or point when the shapes and their sizes and locations are a mirror image of each other.
Synaesthesia
A “condition” in which a person experiences one sense through another sense, such as hearing a sound, but also seeing it in color.

T

T-Shaped
Silhouette that is broad across the shoulder and column-like through the body.
T-Shirt
Casual knit top with rib trim jewel neck and short sleeves.
Tab
Piece of material used to adjust a garment when combined with snaps, buttons or D-rings. Tabs are used on various areas of a garment such as on pant waistbands and jacket waists.
Tailor Tacks
Temporary basting stitches that, when cut apart, leave threads that are useful to mark areas of a garment. Tailor tacks are often used won fabrics where a tracing wheel cannot be used such as fine fabrics and velvets.
Tailor’s Chalk
Special removable chalk used for marking fabrics during the draping and sewing process.
Tailor’s Knot
Knot formed when looping two threads together at the same time and then pulling them with your fingers to form a knot.
Tailored Sleeve
Set-in sleeve with darts at the elbow.
Tambour Hook
Device with a sharp pointed hook at one end used in combination with a hoop when chainstitching and stringing beads onto a fabric.
Tank Top
Sleeveless top with a U or scooped neckline.
Tanning
Process involved in converting a hide or skin into leather.
Tape Measure
Device marked with units of measure in inches or centimeters used to measure in patternmaking and draping.
Tech Pack
Package containing garment specifications and other pertinent details relating to the construction of a garment. Tech packs are compiled and then sent to the factory so that a prototype can be made.
Teddy
Above the knee sleepwear garment similar to a long camisole but usually with lace trim.
Temperature of Color
A word used to describe whether a hue has red in it, or blue in it. Those with red in them are considered warm; those with blue in them are considered cool.
Tempo
How fast or slow musical notes are played.
Tension
Potential energy, where colors and shapes scintillate, or vibrate against each other. Tension is the feeling that something is about to move.
Tent Sloper
Silhouette that flares away from the body and ends at the torso. It is used as a basic sloper or can also be stylized.
Tent/Trapeze/Swing Coat
Coat that has a wide swing at the hem.
Tent/Trapeze/Swing Dress
Dress that flares out away from the body with a wide bottom sweep.
Tertiary Hues
These hues are the ones between the primary and secondary hues on the color circle.
Theme
A melody; a complete musical phrase or expression.
Thimble
Metal or plastic tool used when hand-sewing to help protect the fingers and to push the sewing needle through the material.
Thong/String
Undergarment where the buttocks is exposed and the crotch covered.
Thread
Thin, twisted yarns available in different fibers, on a spool, used for sewing.
Thread Count
Number of yarns per inch in the warp and weft of a woven fabric.
Thread Tracing
A hand basting stitch used on a garment to mark hems, center lines, notches, stitching and button markings, in place of a tracing wheel and tracing paper.
Three-quartered Sleeve
Sleeve that ends a few inches below the elbow.
Throat Plate
Part of the sewing machine below the needle that covers the machine teeth.
Tie
Men’s neck ornament worn under the collar of a men’s tailored shirt. To interlock or fasten as in a tie belt.
Tiered Skirt
Layers of fabric, one larger than the other such as in a tired flounce skirt.
Timbre
The sound quality of a note, related to the type of vibrations produced by the instrument; it is the difference in sound between various instruments.
Tint
A hue mixed with white.
Toggle Button
Straight-lined skirt with a series of flounces cut in circular style, or on the straight of the material
Toile
A full muslin drape of a garment design that is ready for fitting.
Tone
A hue mixed with gray.
Topstitching
A stitch that accentuates the edge of a garment. Can be made by hand or by machine and is usually a longer than normal stitch made with either contrast, matching or silk thread to make the stitch more pronounced. Topstitching can range from close to the edge (edgestitch) to as much as 1″ away from the finished edge.
Toreador Pants
Slim fit pants ending below the knee in the style of Spanish bull fighters.
Torso
On a dress form, the area from the neck to the end of the form.
Tracing Paper
Transfer paper used in patternmaking and draping to copy lines when used with a tracing wheel.
Tracing Wheel
Tool with serrated or pointed edges used in conjunction with tracing paper to transfer lines and marks in draping and patternmaking.
Transparent
A clear surface that transmits light through it.
Translucent
A partially occluded surface that transmits diffused light through it.
Trapunto Stitching
Decorative quilting technique where a motif is outlined with filler between layers to create a raised effect.
Trench coat
Single or double-breasted belted coat with storm flaps, and epaulettes.
Triad
Three hues equidistant from each other on a color circle, such as the primary hues red, yellow and blue, or the secondary hues green, violet and orange.
Tricot Fusible Interfacing
Knitted support material with gummed adhesive backing used in areas of a garment for support.
Trim
To cut away as in seam allowance on a garment. A decorative detail such as ribbon, braid or piping.
Trousers
Full length pants that are pleated or flat front.
True Bias
The 45 degree angle of a fabric, where maximum stretch is sought.
Trueing/Truing
In patternmaking and draping, a term that refers to connecting your lines to create a finished pattern.
Trumpet Skirt
Skirt that has a circular flounce at the bottom, resembling the end of a trumpet.
Tuck
Small pleat that is caught in the seam adding ease and movement to a garment.
Tunic
One piece 3/4 length garment worn over pants or a skirt.
Turtleneck Collar
Collar that is fitted at the neck, folds over itself and usually made out of knit fabric.
Tuxedo
Formal pantsuit with a satin notched or shawl collar and stripe along the pant leg.
Twill Tape
Selvage edge tape used for creating stylelines on a dress form or for other uses when sewing a garment such as a stay or as a trim.
Twist Front
Women’s blouse style with a twist at the front.
Two Piece Sleeve
A 2-part sleeve, with an under and an upper section used mostly in jackets where extra shape and ease are needed.

U

U Neck
Scooped neckline that takes the shape of the letter “U.”
Under stitch
A machine stitch that holds seam allowances together on the underside portion of a garment and keeps it from showing on the right side such as on a facing or under collar.
Underarm Cowl
Softly draped folds under the arm, achieved by cutting the fabric on bias.
Underarm Length
Length of the sleeve from under arm to the sleeve hem.
Underarm Stay
Piece of bias strip inserted into the underarm to keep the underarm stabile.
Undercollar
Bottom or under collar patterned smaller than the top collar, depending on the thickness of the fabric, so that the edge of the under collar won’t show once the collar is set into the neckline.
Underlay
Amount of desired material under a pleat.
Underlining
Any material that is used under the fashion fabric for structure and support. Can be quilted, pressed on or hand-stitched in place.
Underwire
Metal wire used to shape a bra cup.
Uneven Basting
Simple hand stitch that starts with one small stitch approximately 1/4″ long followed by another stitch 3/4″ long repeated and used to temporarily mark the center front of bodices, dresses, sleeves or any other areas on a garment where thread markings are needed.
Unity
A composition has unity when all the elements work together toward a common artistic goal.
Upper Collar
Top portion of a collar.

V

V-Neck
Neckline that forms a “V” on the front. However, a garment can also have a “V” back design detail.
Value
The lightness or darkness of a color. Black is the darkest of all colors, and therefore the lowest value possible. White is the highest value possible.
Value Scale
A range of achromatic values lined up in order from white to black.
Vanishing Point
Where a dart ends.
Vector
An imaginary and invisible line created by shapes in a composition, which determine the direction the eye moves.
Velcro
A tape made up of 2 parts, loops and mesh, that when they adhere to each other form a closure that can be used in place of a snap, hook & eye or button & buttonhole.
Vent/Slit
Opening on a jacket, skirt, dress, blouse or pants to give movement.
Vest
Sleeveless button though garment ending a the waist and commonly worn underneath a suit jacket.
Visible light spectrum
The electromagnetic waves from the light of the sun that are visible to us; we see them as color.
Visual weight
A color’s strength and ability to stand out relative to the other colors is due to a combination of elements: the color’s size, location, color and shape. Visual weight lends an object power and strength, and the ability to attract enough attention to be the focal point.
Volume
A 3-dimensional shape; a form.

W

Waist Dart
Dart that emanates from the waist and vanishes in the direction of the hip.
Waist Tape
Tape that is at the middle of the dress form.
Waistline
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the wrist.
Walking Shorts
Shorts that end above the knee.
Warp
Refers to the lengthwise grain of a woven fabric.
Wavelength
An electromagnetic wave with a particular wavelength identifies each spectral hue.
Weave
Refers to the three most common types of fabric weave: plain weave, twill weave, satin weave.
Wedge
Silhouette that is wide at the top and narrows at the bottom.
Weft
Refers to the crosswise grain of a woven fabric.
Weights
Tool that is used to hold down fabric or paper during draping, patternmaking or sewing.
Welt
A design detail that is mounted onto or into a seam such as a welt pocket on the breast pocket of a jacket, or on a coat.
Western/Continental Pocket
Curved double welt pocket as seen on western shirts.
Whipstitch
Small, close together stitches made over a fold as a decorative touch.
Wigan
Type of cotton interfacing used in tailoring.
Windsor/Cutaway
Pocket cut away at the top, usually in a curved manner, used on men’s western or continental trousers.
Wing Collar
A stiff shirt collar with turned down points in front as seen on a men’s tuxedo dress shirt.
WL
Acronym for waist level or waistline.
Woven
Fabric that is made through the interlacing of yarns either at a right angle to each other to create a plain weave, or in a combination diagonal weave to create a twill and satin weave.
Wrap Coat
Coat made without buttons that is closed with a belt or sash.

Y

Yardstick
A ruler measuring 36 inches used in patternmaking and draping.
Yoke
Separate section of a garment such as the piece across the top back of a men’s shirt, or at the front top of a Western shirt. Yokes can also be used on the tops of pants and skirts.

Z

Zipper
Device made of metal or plastic used as a closure such as on the front of pants, on the back of a dress or as a decorative effect.
Zipper Foot
Sewing machine attachment that aides in the process of inserting a zipper into a garment. They are available for both the left and right side stitching.