A dress silhouette close to the body on top and flares out from the underarm to the hem.
Silhouette that comes in at the waist and flares out at the hem.
A skirt that is close to the body at the waist and flares out at the hem.
A facility where animals are processed for various end uses such as for food and clothing.
Nonrepresentational art; art with no object.
The area of a composition that attracts attention first; it has a strong contrast against the rest of the composition.
Pleats that are smaller at the top and larger at the bottom.
The hues that have no chroma, are not mixtures of chromatic hues, and are not in the spectrum. Black, white and gray are the achromatic hues.
Additive hue system
The colors we obtain when mixing together different wavelengths of light.
Rugged looking jacket usually made of wool with front patch pockets, a collar, long sleeves and cuffs.
Hues that are next to each other on the color circle, such as yellow and orange.
Used as a decorative touch or on the sides of pants, skirts, and jackets to allow for fit adjustments.
When we stare at a hue for a few seconds and then look away, fatigue causes the eye to see the after-image – a ghostly complement of the hue; also known as successive contrast.
Sheer lace with corded edge.
Hues that are near each other on the color circle, and that share at least one primary hue. For example – red and violet, which share red.
Animal skins without any sprayed-on finishes.
A type of rugged pullover outerwear jacket with a drawstring hip and hood.
The fullest part of the bust.
Applied fabric to a garment that is either hand stitched, embroidered or machine stitched to a garment.
The section of a garment through which the arm passes through or where a sleeve is fitted.
Armhole Dart Bodice
A bodice where the dart emanates from the armhole to the apex.
Area on the dress form where the shoulder seam and the natural armhole intersect.
Metal plate on the dress form covering the arm socket.
The circumference measurement of the armhole.
Wide necktie worn looped over with ends cut diagonally and held in place by scarf pin.
The principle of informal balance, rather than formal balance, with each side of the garment offering a different silhouette.
Any neckline which appears different on either side of center front, or closes to one side of center front of blouse or shirt.
A lack of equality of shapes, colors and lines on either side of a center line or point.
A quality of a color that makes it seem to have depth, like the sky.
Tool used to pinch holes into fabric or paper.
The area behind the object in a composition; the ground or field.
Material used to add support to the underside of a fabric or other material. Can be fused or stitched into place.
Reverse stitch used to reinforce a seam or other area of a garment.
The organization of a composition (the arrangement of the colors, lines and shapes) on either side of the center line.
Mark or marks that are made on muslin to help control the grainlines during the draping process.
Soft low kid shoe with thin sole and flat heel, sometimes made with drawstring throat. Inspired by shoe worn by ballet dancers.
Hand and sewing needles with a rounded ball tip for working with knits. Sizes from 5-10.
Raglan-sleeved, loose-fitting style coat with small turned-down collar which buttons up front to neck.
Collar which stands up around neck and buttons. May also be turned down in either front or back, to form two distinct types of collars.
Narrow band collar, usually between 3/4″-1 1/2″ wide. When the front ends of the collar are rounded, it is known as a Mandarin or a Nehru collar.
A strapless top that covers the bust ending at the waist or sometimes right under the bust.
Design elements, such as low value colors, that form a barrier preventing the eye from moving past them. They may surround a focal point, or be aligned with the edge of the composition.
Stitch that reinforces areas of stress on a garment such as the end of a pocket, They can be made by hand, using a zigzag setting on a sewing machine or with a special bar tack machine.
Hip length outerwear jacket , with low patch pockets and contrast or leather collar.
A blouson, long sleeved jacket with a rib collar and cuffs.
Temporary stitches made either by hand or machine until they can be made permanent.
Neckline that sits away from the neckline and forms a line from shoulder to shoulder. Also known as a Boat Neck.
Long fine needle with narrow eye so it can beads and sequins can pass through. Sizes range from 5-15.
Cake of wax used during hand-sewing that aids the stitching process when thread is passed through it.
Pants that are fitted through the leg and flare out at the hem.
Sleeve that is set into normal armhole, is narrow at the top and flares wider at the hem.
Waist-length jacket with standing collar, two rows of brass or dyed to match buttons on front.
Outside pocket made with center box pleat or inverted pleat that expands when pocket is used.
Strip of fabric stitched onto a garment to hold a belt in place.
Shorts that stop above the knee.
Wide flat collar designed to accent a woman’s shoulders.
Tailoring term for an inset pocket on a man’s suit jacket made with a narrow welted edge above the pocket opening. It is a double-besom pocket if both edges have welts.
Refers to a made-to-measure garment.
Also known as quilting needles. Betweens are shorter than sharps and have a small rounded eye for making fine stitches on medium heavyweight fabrics. They are mostly used in tailoring and quilting.
Bias Binding/Bias Tape
Cloth fabric cut on the bias and offered by the yard in single folded or double folded. Used to bind seams and hems or other edges of a garment.
Bias Cowl Dress
Fitted dress, cut on bias grain, forming a draped collar in front.
Facing cut on diagonal or bias grain resulting in a softer roll line.
The diagonal grain of a fabric that has the most stretch.
Strip of fabric cut on the bias and can be used to make loops, encase a raw edge, inserted in a seam for control purposes, or any other use.
Fullest part of the upper arm area between the elbow and the shoulder.
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the bicep.
Circumference of the bicep area of the upper arm.
Tight fitting shorts stopping above the knee made out of stretch fabric.
Bifurcated Dress Form
Neck to ankle dress form.
Two piece skimpy swimsuit.
Sleeve that is full at the bottom and usually gathered into a cuff or band.
Acronym for bust level.
Traditional type of jacket with a notch collar.
When dye migrates from one material onto another.
Process of joining lines to form a smooth line or curve.
Small machine or hand stitch used on hems. The thread is hidden in the fold so that the stitches are not visible.
Process of manipulating muslin or other fabric so that the length and cross grain are at right angles to each other.
Bodice garment that extends to above the hip.
Type of design detail where fullness is gathered into a band such as on a blouse hem or at the bottom of a skirt or dress hem.
Cotton tulle fabric used on corselets to add support and structure.
Bodice silhouette that is fitted to the body, has shoulder and waist darts and ends at the waistline. It is used as a basic pattern sloper or can also be stylized.
Silhouette that is fitted to the body, has shoulder and waist darts and ends at the hipline. It is used as a basic pattern sloper or can also be stylized.
Long, thick ballpoint needle with an elongated eye used for threading elastic, ribbon or tape through casings and other openings.
Tight fitting stretch garment that sometimes has a snap crotch opening.
Jacket that sits at or above the waist and is usually collarless.
White paper used for fashion drawing.
A bodice where boning or stays are used to create structure.
By-the-yard plastic material inserted into the seams of bustiers, corsets, bodices or any part of a garment where a structured look is desired.
Man’s tie, square-cut or with shaped ends, tied in a bow under the chin.
Type of pleating that forms small boxes beginning at the waist around the width of a garment.
Women’s and children’s loose-legged panties of pull-on type.
Loose-legged panties of pull-on type
Boxy Torso Sloper
Silhouette that ends at the end of the torso and sits away from the body, not fitted.
Break Point/Break line
Point on a garment where the lapel turns back and where the closure is placed, such as on a notched collar jacket.
The empty space that can surround an object in a composition, and allow it to remain unobstructed and easy to see. Some elements need a substantial amount of breathing room around them, or else they seem crushed, cramped or overwhelmingly large for the area.
Tape used on the lapel roll line of a jacket.
Women’s or girl’s very short panties sometimes made of control stretch fabric with garters added.
Handbag for woman executive which is of briefcase size and features small outside pockets for purse items
The lightness or darkness of a color. A light color has brightness.
The intensity or saturation of a color; a measure of grayness of a color; chroma. Grayness is created by adding gray, black, white or the complement to a color. A high intensity color has brilliance.
Also known as intermediary hues, they have been mixed with gray, black or white; two complementary hues can also make a broken hue.
Brush Tip Technique
A brush stroke technique used in fashion illustration whereby only the tip of the brush is utilized while illustrating.
Closure usually made of metal or plastic used to close a garment.
Leather that has been tanned from a deer skin.
Leather skin tanned from a buffalo hide.
Garment that has extra padding on the shoulder.
Dart that ends at the apex and emanates from either the neck, shoulder, side seam or from center front.
Neck to waist dress form with bust cup demarcations.
Tight-fitting strapless garment usually with bones in the seams for added structure.
Silhouette with a protuberance on the back that extends from the waist to the hip or to the hem.
Decorative ornament used as a trimming or as a functional fastener. Usually made with holes punched in center or a shank on the back, made to slip through a buttonhole or loop.
Thin strip of fabric stitched onto a garment as a closure for a button.
Button loop closure made of thread, cord or bias or non-bias fabric tubing.
Strip of fabric stitched onto a garment either as a finishing detail or as support for buttons and buttonholes.
Button and buttonhole used on the edge of a collar.
Hole in which a button passes through to close a garment.
Heavy silk thread used in tailoring and to make handmade buttonholes.
By the yard cotton rope used as filler to make cording or piping. Available in sizes ranging from 1/8″ -1″in diameter.
A floor length, long-bell sleeved garment with a slit neck, based off of North African and Middle Eastern robes worn by men.
An adjustment of two color-producing devices to help them communicate with each other and produce the same color. For example, a printer and a monitor can be calibrated.
V-neck or scooped neck top with straps.
A decoration on objects to make them blend in with the background.
Vertical measurement from the bicep line to the shoulder/armhole intersection. The length of the bicep to the cap of the sleeve.
Short sleeve ending at or above the bicep with little to no cap ease.
Garment the covers the body, usually sleeveless though having holds for the arms, worn as a coat.
Top of the vertical line that measures the bicep to the shoulder/armhole intersection of a sleeve.
Capri/Pedal Pushers/Clam Diggers
Tight-fitting three-quarter length pants, usually with short slit on the outside leg.
Collarless jacket ending at or slightly below the waist.
Large batch pocket, usually used on shorts and pants.
Pants with extra pockets and a loop on the side leg to hold a hammer tool.
Tunnel made of fabric through which a belt or elastic is encased.
Skin tight, one piece garment, usually ankle length and with long sleeves.
Hand hemming stitch resembling a cross-stitch pattern with a series of back stitches starting from left to right, alternating on the body and then the hem.
Vertical line denoting the center of the back of a garment.
Vertical line denoting the center of the front of a garment.
Delicate net-like lace with a scalloped edge.
Straight-cut dress with few darts and no waistline.
A silhouette that references a Chinese-styled dress, made with mandarin collar, short sleeves, and a long slit on one or both sides of the skirt.
Semi-fitted, straight-cut classic man’s or woman’s overcoat in single or double breasted style, usually with a black velvet collar.
A technique in art that uses variations of highlights and shadows to achieve a 3-dimensional effect.
In transparency, the child color is created from the two parent colors that are mixed together.
The intensity or brilliance of a color; chroma is the opposite of grayness.
Chromatic hues include the spectral hues and their mixtures. If these hues are mixed with achromatic hues, they still are chromatic hues. Only black, white and gray are not chromatic hues, because they have no chroma.
Waistline or area that is pulled in very tightly, usually with a wide tie belt.
Skirt whose hem circumference forms a circle.
Acronym for crotch level.
Refers to any method used to finish the edge of an area of a garment such as facings, hems, etc.
Clear Plastic Ruler
Ruler marked with inches or centimeters on clear plastic used in draping, patternmaking, sewing and art so that underneath lines and markings are visible.
To snip into as in clipping into seam allowance to release a curved seam.
Small spring-loaded scissors used to open stitches, seams and assorted other uses in sewing and draping.
Shoe made with thick sole of wood or cork and the upper is made of leather, cloth, or faux leather.
The Gestalt principle of perception whereby we perceive a whole shape even when it is missing some edges.
Any type of garment closure such as buttons, frogs, snaps, clips, toggles, buckles, D-ring, loop and button, Velcro, lacing or zipper.
Double-breasted coat with large, wide lapels, fitted waistline, and flared skirt. Frequently has a cape collar and brass buttons.
Style of dress that mimics a coat.
Wrap coat with rounded shoulders and deep batwing sleeve.
By-the-yard tape with an adhesive back used on leather and suede garments to add support in stress areas such as at the crotch, the armhole and along the zipper as well as other parts of a garment.
Area from the collar roll to the collar’s edge.
The result of a combination of a hue, a value and a level of intensity.
An illustration of all spectral hues, placed in a circle, with the longest wave hue (red) meeting the shortest wave hue (violet).
All the colors that a color-producing device (such as a monitor or a printer) can make.
Color management system
In software, a way of translating the light-based RGB profile of the computer monitor to the pigment-based CMYK profile of printing.
Colors relationships are defined by their distance from each other on the color circle; for example, color relationships include complements and triads.
The hue opposite another hue on the color circle. For example, red is the complement of green.
The arrangement of colors, lines and shapes on a 2-dimensional surface that are intended to be a work of design.
A curve shaped like part of the interior of a circle.
Curve that goes in, not out.
Photoreceptors in our retinas that allow us to see color. There are three different types of cones, each of which can absorb one of the three primary hues of light.
Dart with shape: curved, convex, concave or fisheye.
The effect that one color, line or shape has on another due to their differences. Their placement near each other would allow comparison and intensify their particular properties.
The visual path or process of moving through the composition.
A rolled collar that converts two ways, meeting at center front or open, creating a notch collar effect.
A curve shaped like part of the exterior of a circle.
Curve that out and not in.
Inner structure of a dress that adds shape and support.
Type of woman’s stiffened undergarment with boning and/or stays, laced in front or back.
Blouse or tunic silhouette with full sleeves with small cuff and a stand collar.
Invisible stitching technique used to secure braid, ribbon or other passementerie in a decorative pattern to the surface of a fabric.
Made-to-measure high-end clothing. Couturier refers to a male designer, couturiere a female dressmaker or designer.
Draped folds forming a soft stylized neckline or collar.
Cowl Neck Back
Draped folds forming a stylized neckline on the back of a garment, usually cut on bias grain.
Cowl Neck Blouse
Blouse with a draped cowl neckline cut on bias.
Cowl Neck Front
Draped folds forming a stylized neckline on the front of a garment, usually cut on bias grain.
Draped folds forming a stylized effect, usually cut on bias grain, on the top of a sleeve.
Inset piece or yoke that is usually cut on bias grain, forming a draped cowl effect.
Technique used to form a fold or a line such as, down the middle on the front of trousers, or in patternmaking to help fold the paper, or in draping to form a mark on the fabric.
Line formed when folding a pattern over to form a crease.
Also known as embroidery needles. Crewel needles have a longer eye for threading multiple strands of thread but otherwise are identical to sharps.
A machine stitch that eases fabric into an area of a seam.
When the length on a garment, or part of a garment is shortened.
Refers to a rough sketch in fashion drawing.
Grain that goes from selvage to selvage, also known as the weft. Ways to identify muslin cross grain are: 1) perpendicular to length or warp grain, 2) has some stretch to it but not as much as bias grain 3) fuzzier yarn with more slubs than length grain and 4) when folded will not lay flat as length grain, but will be a bit bouncy.
Marks made when draping that indicate an intersection such as at the side seam/underarm, the shoulder/armhole or any place where 2 lines intersect.
Distance from waist to crotch level plus desired ease.
Area on a trouser pattern where the crotch measurement extends from center front and center back.
Combined measurement on the front and back crotch seamlines taken from front waist to back waist.
Area on a pattern measured from waist to where the crotch starts.
Type of mini pleats seen on dresses, skirts or other areas of a garment.
Band that ends the bottom of a sleeve or a detail on the bottom of pants or shorts that turns up over itself.
Knee length pants with inverted pleats on center front and back to give a skirt-like look.
Sash-like waist wrapping, often pleated to add a decorative touch.
Cup & Fold Method
In patternmaking and draping, when you cup the paper or fabric to make it easier to true the dart.
The curvy quality of lines or shapes.
Where seamlines are placed on a garment for a better leather yield.
In patternmaking and draping the cutting line refers to the outside line of the seam allowance on a pattern and the stitching line on a sloper.
Rubber self-healing cutting mat used in patternmaking or for cutting fabric with a rotary blade cutter.
Term for a v-shaped stitched tuck that is used to create shape in a garment.
The length of a dart, from start to vanishing point.
The length of a dart, from start to vanishing point.
Concept of how to move darts to different areas on the body.
Shape of a dart, concave, convex, fisheye, straight or curved.
Width and length of the dart pick-up.
A mark of about 1/4″ long made on a draped muslin indicating areas of the garment such as the front and back waistline, dart pick-up and hemlines.
The purchase price as it appears on the invoice plus transportation costs incurred
Pant silhouette that is gathered at the waist with an elongated crotch, tapering at the ankle.
The width of a circle such as the diameter of a button.
Making a product stand out from the competition in some way, either because of its physical appearance, or through the benefits that it offers to the customer.
The orientation of a line or shape in a composition. The direction can be horizontal, vertical or diagonal.
Skirt style where fabric is gathered into a waistband or a yoke.
Direct Operating Expenses
Related to department expenses. It usually includes such expenses as sales, personnel salaries, selling supplies, travel for buying staff, and advertising expenditures for the department.
Represents a percentage reduction in the billed cost of merchandise offered by the vendor to a buyer.
A number to be divided by another number.
A number by which another number, the dividend, is divided.
Popular iconic workboot with air-cushioned soles made popular in the 1960s.
The element that has the greatest influence on a composition is said to be dominant. Dominance can exist in color, line, shape or size of area. The second most influential element would be called sub-dominant, secondary or subordinate.
Mark used in draping to indicate areas such as the waistline, neckline, side sea, armhole and hem.
When the upper layer of a leather skin separates from the inner layer.
Process of creating clothing designs by manipulating muslin around a dress form in a three dimensional way resulting in a pattern.
A tie inserted into a tunnel or loops either at the waist or on an other area of a garment. When pulled it forms a gathered effect.
A replica of the human body made out of paper mache (more expensive) or out of fiberglass (less expensive) and then covered in cloth so that pins can be sunk into it during the draping and fitting process.
Dress Maker Pins
Medium weight pins made of steel used in sewing, draping and patternmaking.
Drop Shoulder Blouse
Blouse silhouette where the sleeve cap is moved away from the natural shoulder and the underarm is droppe, creating a more casual look and fit.
Dropped Armhole Sleeve
Relaxed sleeve with little to no cap ease, set into a drop shoulder armhole.
Silhouette whereby the natural waist is dropped at or near the hip level.
Car coat or a shorter length coat fastened with toggles rather than buttons introduced during WWII and worn by men in British Navy
A batch of dye solution, associated with its color; each batch varies from other batches because of atmospheric differences or qualities of the dye itself.
Energy in a composition that makes the shapes and lines appear to be moving.
Allowing extra measure to the pattern or drape such as at the bust, waist, hip, side seam, sleeve, underarm, crotch, or anywhere else on the pattern so that the garment fits comfortably.
Adding an extra measure to the drape, usually between 1/8″ – 1/4″, so that the garment fits comfortably.
Waist length, collared, long sleeve jacket made popular by former President Eisenhower.
Stretch material sold by the yard.
Elements of color
Hue, value and intensity are the three factors or elements that make up a color.
Elements of composition
Color, line and shape are the three factors that are used to form a composition.
Total measurement taken around the elbow of the arm.
One or 2 darts at the elbow to create a fitted sleeve.
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the elbow.
Also known as crewel needles. Embroidery needles have a longer eye for threading multiple strands of thread but otherwise are identical to sharps.
Dress with high waistline just under the bosom defined by an inserted piece of fabric or a seam.
Horizontal styleline that sits underneath the bust.
Gives employees of the retailer a percentage reduction on the price of merchandise.
End of Month (EOM) Dating
The cash discount period is computed from the end of the month in which the invoice is dated rather than from the date of the invoice itself (It is counted similarly to extra dating).
The visual movement in a composition. Energy could be tension, dynamic energy, static energy or passive energy.
Large narrow handbag made in the shape of a correspondence envelope, usually of clutch-type without handle.
Tabs that are sewn onto a garment such as on military jackets. Historically to hold a soldier’s hat or gloves.
Rope-soled shoe with canvas, leather or faux leather upper. Sometimes they are tied at the ankle.
Simple hand stitch approximately 4-6 stitches per inch used to temporarily hold one or more layers of fabric together.
Area on a garment where the button and buttonholes or other closure sit.
Known as X-dating, is calculated from the date of invoice just like regular dating terms. However, unlike regular dating, extra dating grants a specified number of extra days to take advantage of the cash discount period – a total of 40 days.
An element in a composition that prevents it from being balanced and needs to be removed to achieve balance.
Yarns that are assembled to be either woven, knitted, felted, braided, netted or bonded together to create material or cloth.
Refers to the right side of the fabric.
Section on a garment used to clean finish that area for example on a neckline, armhole or pocket top.
Decorative open-worked hand stitch resembling a ladder.
The background, or ground, of a 2-dimensional image; the area surrounding the object.
The object of a composition; not the background.
Using your fingers to press an area of the garment flat such as a dart or seam allowance either before or after you have ironed the area.
Curved dart that adds shape to a garment.
When a garment sits close to the body.
Sleeve that has darts at the elbow and is used as a sloper.
Fitted Torso Sloper
Silhouette that is fitted to the body and ends at the bottom of the dress form’s torso.
Process of checking to see how a muslin or garment fits so that adjustments can be made.
Type of stitched and open pleat.
Section of a garment that covers a pocket.
Extending out from a straight or natural line such as on a sleeve or the side seam of a skirt, pant or dress.
Skirt that extends out from a straight line side seam version.
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain on center front and center back.
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain in the middle of each front and back panel.
Flare skirt draped with the straight grain on the side seams.
Low heeled, flat shoe. A technical drawing of a garment used in a tech pack, on a spec sheet or in presentation materials such as line sheets and presentation boards.
Flat Brush Technique
A brush stroke used in fashion illustration that utilizes the side of the brush on the paper when adding paint or ink to an area of the illustration.
Collar with little to no stand around the neck.
Flat Fell Seam
Type of seam finish whereby one seam allowance covers the other. Often used on jeans or seams where extra strength is required.
Two dimensional patternmaking technique used to create designs using paper.
A flexible measuring device used to measure armholes or other curved areas on a pattern, garment or dress form.
Separate ruffled or gathered piece added to the bottom of a garment as a design detail.
Rows of tiny pleats in fabric resulting in a 3 dimensional effect.
An illusion in a value chart where each gray appears to change value slightly at the borders of its two neighboring values. Fluting, also known as Mach Bands, illustrates how the value of any color makes an adjacent one as different from it as possible.
Acronym for ‘Free On Board’ referring to transportation costs.
Vendor pays all transportation costs and owns the merchandise until it arrives at the place designated by the buyer. These terms can also be “FOB Store” or “FOB Buyer’s Warehouse.”
FOB Factory (FOB origin)
Buyer takes title to the merchandise at the point of shipment (the factory). The buyer pays all transportation charges and assumes all risks for the goods while they are in transit.
The area of a composition that creates an attraction for the eye, keeping the eye focused on it.
When a fabric or paper is folded over itself to form an edge.
Place on a pattern where to turn up or under such as at the hem of a garment.
In reference to forecasting color, this refers to trend-spotting companies that determine the colors that will be popular a couple of years in the future. Manufacturers rely on this information to help guide them with their color choices.
A shape that appears to be 3-dimensional in a 2-dimensional composition; a volume.
When raw edges of a fabric start to unravel.
Vendor has an agreement and obligation to deliver goods to buyer’s designated port where transfer of ownership takes place.
Freight paid by the vendor or the buyer.
Cuff on a sleeve that is folded over itself and is usually larger than a regular shirt cuff.
Tool used to create curved lines in draping and patternmaking.
Bust dart emanates from the side seam close to the waistline resulting in a semi fitted shape.
Technique of fraying the fabric yarns to create a fringed edge.
Any skirt made with several widths of fabric, cut in a complete circle, made with many gores or gathered.
Type of neckline where the garment is built up at the shoulders and center back creating a close to the neck effect.
Support material with a press-on adhesive backing that when ironed with pressure onto the wrong side of a fabric, adds structure to that area. Fusible interfacings are available in various weights, colors and woven non woven.
Gamut of color
The range of color, such as those that the eye can see, or those that can be produced by a color-producing device.
Any bias grain that is not necessarily a 45 degree angled bias.
Compressing fabric into a smaller amount such as when shirring fabric in a dirndl skirt, or as ruffles.
Wide cropped women’s pants stopping below the knee mid-calf.
Gestalt principles of perception
As identified by psychologist Max Wertheimer, the way we organize objects that we see to help us determine their importance, based on factors such as their similarity or proximity.
A cord used to add support to a buttonhole.
Triangular or wedge tip sewing needle used on leather, suede and faux leather. Comes in sizes 3/0-10.
Goethe proposed the concept that pairs of complements are best used together in specific proportions. For example, green and red should each have 50% of the area.
Triangular piece inserted into a garment at the hem or the sleeve to give extra fullness.
A triangular piece of fabric inserted upward from the hem of the skirt to give more fullness
Skirt with panels which fits through the waistline and flares out on each panel at the hem.
Seam that joins the collar and neckline at the lapel.
Painting technique used in fashion illustration using gouache paints, consisting of pigment, which are then suspended in water.
Several values of one hue (monochromatic) that are lined up in sequence from lightest to darkest. Gradient can also refer to shapes or lines placed in size order.
Increasing and or decreasing a base size pattern to fit various sizes. To reduce layers of seam allowance to reduce bulk when sewing a seam such as around the collar/neckline of a coat.
Term used to describe the yarn direction of a fabric: crossgrain (weft), lengthgrain (warp) or diagonal (bias). Also decribes the smooth side of a piece of leather after tanning.
Outside part of a leather skin.
Direction of yarns in a fabric weave: crossgrain (weft), length grain (warp), diagonal (bias).
Lead pencil used in fashion drawing.
Circular rings with center holes to pass ties or laces through.
By-the-yard ribbon with small grooves used as trim.
Gross Margin Return on Inventory Investment
a deduction that examines the relationship between inventory turnover and gross margin.
The total sales for any given period before deducting the retail value of goods returned to the store and/ or making price allowances.
The background of a 2-dimensional image, placed behind the object.
Guide Lines on Muslin
Marks made on muslin indicating grain and used to balance or control the muslin during the draping process.
A piece of fabric inserted into an area of a garment to permit greater movement. Gussets are used at the underarm, the pant crotch on sides of handbag and shoes to create a wider opening.
Support material used in jackets and coats or in garments where a more structured look is desired.
A top with a strap encircling the neck used to support the garment to the body, leaving the shoulders and the back bare.
Ironing tool, shaped like a ham, used when pressing certain shaped areas of a garment.
The feel of a fabric: smooth, stiff, soft, drapey, rigid, crisp or pliable.
Simple hand stitch approximately 4-6 stitches per inch used to temporarily hold one or more layers of fabric together.
Hand Pick Stitch
A hand stitch with a small stitch pick-up. It is used either as a decorative holding stitch such as around a lapel edge, or in place of a machine stitch to securely hold a zipper in place such as on pile fabrics.
Pointed design detail on a dress, blouse or skirt hem that mimics the points of a handkerchief.
Bouffant pants gathered into bands at the ankles.
Colors that are pleasing together are said to be in harmony with each other.
Finished portion of a garment such as a sleeve, skirt, dress or pant bottom. Or, the act of finishing the end of a garment.
The amount of fabric allocated to hemming an area of a garment.
By-the-yard tape used to finish a hem or other raw edge of a garment. Also known as seam binding.
Tool that measures from the floor up, the hem of a garment. Usually using chalk.
Line that denotes the bottom of the hem before it is turned up and finished.
A simple running stitch that temporarily keeps the hem up before it is permanently stitched.
The skin of a large animal such as a hose or cow.
High Neck Cowl
Softly draped design detail that sits high on the neck.
High Point Shoulder
The shoulder/neck intersection point on a dress form or a garment.
Casual pants with large bellows pockets on the side legs and back.
Area of the figure measured at 7″ down from the natural waistline.
Tool with a curve that is used in draping and patternmaking to true the hip and assorted other areas of a pattern.
Horizontal styleline that is measured at 7″ down from the natural waistline and is level to the floor.
Pants cut below the natural waistline, usually resting on the hip bone, sometimes lower.
Pants cut with fullness on both the outer and inner seams to give a bell flare at the hem.
Acronym for hip level or hipline.
A machine or hand stitch used to hold gathers, pleats or other area of a garment in place, before a permanent stitch is made.
Hong Kong Finish
Type of seam or hem finish where the edges of each seam are opened and bound with fabric.
Hook and Eye
Two part metal closure that hooks into a loop and is often used on garment waistbands, tops of zippers and other areas, to close a garment.
By-the-yard stiffening material used to add structure to areas of a garment such as hems and collars . Available in various widths and colors.
The color name, such as red, blue, green and yellow, based on the length of the light wave.
Type of hair canvas interfacing available in different weights and either fusible or non-fusible.
An area brightened up or lit by light from another source; also the decoration on a manuscript.
A curvy movement indicated by the placement of a series of shapes on a curve in a composition. It is implied because no curvy line is actually drawn.
Indirect Operating Expenses
Expenses not related to a specific department. It includes store maintenance and security, senior executive salaries, and insurance.
Seam area on a garment such as the inside of a pant leg or the inside length of a sleeve. Men’s pants sizes are measured from this length.
Pocket that is hidden or inset into a section a garment such as in a seam.
The seam in men’s trousers, from the crotch to the them. Leg length for men’s pants is measured by this seam.
Pocket that is cut into a garment such as a welt pocket on a jacket.
The saturation, chroma, brilliance or strength of a color as compared to gray. A high intensity color has no gray in it. Low intensity colors have more grayness, and are created by adding gray, black, white or the complement to a color.
Support material used on areas of a garment to give the it, shape, body and support. Can be woven, non woven, fusible or non-fusible.
Interference phenomenon of light
The obstruction of a ray of light with another medium such as oil, which causes a different hue to appear; also known as iridescence. We see interference colors in oil slicks, butterfly wings, bird feathers and the inside of oyster shells.
Material used inside coats and jackets for warmth such as polyfil or goose down.
A narrow area that is in-between two shapes.
See Stock Turnover.
Type of pleat that is hidden under two pieces of fabric on a garment.
The interplay of rainbow-like hues that arises from interference of light waves by another medium such as oil or bird feathers. Objects that produce iridescence are opals, butterfly wings, peacock feathers, the mother-of-pearl that we see inside oyster shells, and oil slicks.
A device used to flatten an area or areas of a garment.
Padded and covered device used to iron garments and various other areas of garments.
A rugged collar detail that sits at the neck of a shirt or blouse.
Type of patterned or printed shorts worn as beachwear or casual wear.
Casual indigo blue denim or colored twill pants with back patch pockets, and 2 front top pockets.
Round neckline that fits close to the neck and accentuates the wearer’s jewelry.
Riding pants with narrow legs that widen substantially at the hips.
Long sleeve with short puffed top and fitted on the lower arm and wrist.
Pouch like pocket on the front of a garment.
High round neckline made with a teardrop or keyhole piece cut out at the center front.
Pleat on a skirt or dress that adds movement to the circumference of that garment.
Pleated skirt, usually made from plaid fabric that wraps to one side and is held in place with a large pin ornament.
Wrap robe silhouette of Japanese origin where either the body and sleeves are cut as one or where sleeves are straight and set in at right angles to the body.
Type of short pants, ending right below the knee with a cuff and are fastened with either a buckle, button or elastic.
Sharp even one directional pleats measuring 1/2″ to 1″ to 1″ wide.
Tool shaped like an “L” used in draping and patternmaking.
Lace Edge Binding
Type of lace binding used to finish the edges of hems or as a decorative detail.
Using cord or fabric strips to close a garment as on the front of pants, skirts, corsets or anyplace where a decorative closure is desired.
The purchase price as it appears on the invoice plus transportation and import/ duty costs incurred.
Two piece sleeve that flares out to form a lantern-like effect.
The turn back portion of a front opening, where the closure starts on the front.
Skirt made of tiers in varying lengths
Technically all animal skins are leather however the name leather is most often associated with the fur-bearing or outside of a leather skin, also known as nappa or the grain side.
Leg o’Mutton Sleeve
Sleeve with full top gathered or pleated into armhole and tapered to wrist where it looks like a regular sleeve.
In a plain weave textile lengthwise, also known as the warp, is the strongest grain. Ways to identify muslin length grain are: 1) parallel to the selvage, 2) has little or no stretch to it, 3) length grain yarns are stronger and smoother, unlike crossgrain yarns which are slubby, and 4) when folded it lays flat unlike the crossgrain which will be a bit bouncy.
In a plain weave textile the lengthwise, also known as the warp, is the strongest grain. Ways to identify muslin length grain are: 1) parallel to the selvage, 2) has little to no stretch to it 3) length grain yarns are stronger and smoother, unlike crossgrain yarns which are slubby, and 4) when folded it lays flat unlike the crossgrain which will be a bit bouncy.
Line of composition
The major orientation of the lines in a composition; the type of line in the composition that has the most influence over the mood and artistic message. There is often a secondary line of composition with slightly less influence.
Lines and forms on a 2-dimensional surface that give the illusion of distance.
Separate garment made out of lightweight material that lines the inside of a garment adding shape and comfort while covering the inner seams and structure of the outer shell.
The color ascribed to an object irrespective of the lighting situation. We don’t really know whether every object has its own local color, since we only see relative to the lighting situation.
Metal tool with a latch and hook end used to turn fabric tubings inside out.
Radiating or reflecting light; the source of light.
The gleam of reflected light that we see on fabrics such as silk or leather. Within the category of luster are the qualities of luminosity and iridescence.
Long temporary machine stitches sewn at approximately 4- 6 stitches per inch which are later snipped every few inches and removed.
Magic Rub Eraser
White eraser used in fashion drawing.
Standing-band collar that extends up on neck not quite meeting at center front.
Schematic plan of graded pattern parts by size of a particular garment style. Markers can be made manually or by computer.
A reduction in the original or previous retail price of an item or group of items.
The act of placing pencil, chalk or pen marker notations while draping to indicate areas that will later be trued on the table.
The difference between the amount the retailer pays a vendor or manufacturer and retail price sold to the end consumer. (It could be stated in dollars or percent).
Shoe with a strap covering the instep of the foot.
Name given to the original graded patterns for a particular style from which copies or tracings are made.
To line up, as in matching notches or a plaid or stripe, at the side seam on a given style.
Lead pencil with holder used in patternmaking.
A chemical finish added to thread to give strength and luster.
A group of related merchandise for which separate expense and merchandising records are kept for the purpose of determining the profit of this grouping.
A pair of colors that are different under one light source but appear to be the same under another type of light source. They are a metameric match. This difference in their appearance happens because the colors are not a spectral match; that is, they do not have the same spectral reflectance curve.
Two samples of colors, as in paint, that look different under different light sources.
In music, meter is the beat; the background pulse that you feel that makes you want to tap your foot.
The value we call middle gray appears to be the point halfway between black and white.
Flat collar that is wide in the back then tapers into nothing in the front.
A top silhouette that ends under the bust leaving the rib cage bare.
A separate piece on a top, blouse or dress that hugs the rib cage of the body.
Needles that are longer than sharps and used for basting, pleating and by milliners.
A small jeweled handbag usually used for eveningwear.
A diagonal seam at a square corner, such as at the bottom of a skirt vent or sleeve vent. Also, when a plaid or stripe comes together at a 45 degree angle such as on a side seam.
Shoe based on footwear worn by Native Americans.
Having one hue.
Presentation board used to help sell a designer’s collection concept for a particular season.
Zipper front black leather jacket ending right below the waist with several pocket zippers. Worn by motorcycle gangs such as the Hell’s Angels.
Accessory used around the neck for warmth.
Type of thin pleating resembling the underside of a mushroom cap.
Plain weave fabric used in draping and available in a variety of weights, from fine to heavy.
The direction of the pile on a fabric such as velvet or corduroy. Patterns must be layed-out in one direction, usually nap smoothed up, before cutting.
Acronym for neckband.
Neck Dart Bodice
Bodice where the dart emanates from the neckline and vanishes at the apex.
Thin strip of fabric inserted into a neckline and used as a collar or collar stand.
Contour of the neck from front to back.
The background surrounding the lines and forms in a 2-dimensional composition.
Type of stand collar popularized by Indian Prime Minister Nehru.
The dollar volume of merchandise sold, also known as sales volume.
One piece sleepwear garment.
One piece sleepwear garment reminiscent of a man’s shirt.
Acronym for neckline.
Fabric that is made by fusing fibers together as in interfacing and felt material.
Single breasted jacket with vertical front pleats and a self belt.
Type of collar that when connected to a neckline lapel, creates a notch like effect.
Notch Collar Blazer
Classic jacket style with notch collar and patch pockets.
Metal tool used to make notches on patterns.
Marks made on patterns to indicate where seams align, where hems are turned and other key matching points that are necessary when constructing a garment.
Grain side of leather that has been sanded or buffed to give a slight nap finish.
Heavy weight paper, green on back, manila-colored on face, used for pattern slopers.
Sash-like belt as seen on a Japanese Kimono.
The figure in a representational composition; the opposite of the background.
A surface that transmits no light through it, made of materials ranging from soft fabrics or rubber to hard materials like plastic or metal.
Dart that is not sewn to the vanishing point.
A revolving account that is used to plan merchandise for retailers. It is a critical financial reserve that allows buyers to replenish inventory with reorders of the top sellers during the merchandise period
The cost of operating the business. The expenses incurred by the retailer for general administrative business activities during any given period. These expenses are not related to the production of goods and services.
A word that describes lines or shapes that are curvy and do not follow the shape of a recognizable geometric form; lines or shapes with no sharp edges.
Sheer fabric with some rigidity to it. Available in cotton, silk or a blend.
The direction in which a line or shape leads.
Seam finish done either by machine with a zig-zag stitch or by hand using an overcast stitch.
A diagonal hand stitch covering an edge, to keep the edge from fraying.
Hand stitches made on the diagonal joining 2 pieces of cloth together to add shape and structure such as on the under side of a jacket collar and lapel.
Two Piece sleepwear garment.
Long wide-legged pants.
Bifurcated dress form waist to ankle.
Pant or skirt design detail that is cinched in at the waist usually with a drawstring and ruffles on the top.
In an illustration of transparency, the parent color is one of the two that are mixed together to produce a “child” color.
Side by side darts.
A hooded outerwear jacket ending at the hip or slightly lower.
Acceptance of, or a non-moving obstruction to, nearby elements. Curves are examples of passive reaction to the adjacent elements.
Pocket that sits on top of a garment.
A predictable arrangement of lines and shapes using repetition and other techniques.
Paper or muslin guide of a garment design which is cut out of fabric.
Arranging pattern pieces of a garment on fabric or paper to get the best possible yield.
Two-dimensional method of creating a garment or accessory using pattern paper.
Acronym referring to ‘Profit & Loss’.
Double-breasted outerwear jacket popularized by the U.S. Navy.
Notch collar effect where the lapel points up.
Ethnic style blouse with a gathered top and waist. Sometime will be smocked or embroidered.
Full sleeve gathered at top and sewn into a band or cuff at the bottom.
Skirt with a gathered or pleated full waist that tapers at the bottom.
Pants with a gathered or pleated full waist and that taper at the ankle.
Slim fitting pants that are the same width at the knee and at the ankle.
Flat shoe with a place to insert a coin on the vamp or instep.
The way the human brain shapes our understanding of what we see.
Skirt like effect created either in one piece or as an insert into the waist.
In patternmaking, a term that refers to defining your lines.
Sleeve that wraps across the front creating a petal effect.
Peter Pan Collar
Flat collar with rounded ends in the front.
Support material heavier than grosgrain and used as an interfacing.
Small hand stitch used for sewing areas of the garment in place of a machine stitch such as the zipper on velvet and around the collar of a jacket lapel.
The flat surface – the paper or canvas – of the 2-dimensional composition. It is a vertical plane. The top, bottom and side edges of the composition define the limits of the picture plane, and we say they are on the picture plane level.
Coloring matter in the form of insoluble powder, which is mixed with an aqueous or oil base to make paint.
Flat collar extending onto the shoulder with pointed front ends.
Steel device used in patternmaking and sewing to hold fabric or paper while cutting and in draping to secure fabric to the dress form.
Using pins to hold layers together before sewing or during a fitting.
Narrow stitched down tuck usually in clusters used as decorative details on blouses as well as other areas of a garment.
Using a pinking shears to finish the edge of a fabric to keep it from fraying or as a decorative touch.
Scissors with a serrated blade used to finish the edges of seam or as a decorative touch.
Folded strip of cloth, sometimes with a cord insert, sewn into a seam or on a garment edge as a trim.
Decorative trim used to finish edges of a garment.
In music, how high or how low the notes are.
The act of holding in one place with a pencil or pin and then shifting a pattern to another direction, for example when shifting a dart from shoulder to the side seam.
In patternmaking, the process of shifting a pattern to another area on a pattern. For example when shifting a dart from neck to shoulder.
The place where a pivot takes place such as at the vanishing point of a dart or at the apex.
Acronym for princess line.
Piece that clean finishes an area such as along center front or on a sleeve, allowing for buttons and buttonholes.
Screw in the middle of the metal plate of a dress form’s armhole.
To fold material flat and either stitch down or leave loose to add extra fullness to a garment. Or, the act of turning material over and pressing it flat.
Fold of fabric usually pressed flat but sometimes left unpressed. When used in a skirt, blouse or dress, it is sometimes stitched down at the top of the garment to make it hang better.
Amount of material allotted to create a pleat.
The act of laying one layer on top of another.
Garment detail that can be applied in different ways: on top as in a patch pocket, as a bag-type that is inset into a garment as in a welt pocket, or sewn into a seam as in an inseam pocket.
The end of something such as the end point of a dart.
Short sleeved knit shirt with a ribbed collar and half placket front.
The objects in a composition.
Fabric that has been shrunk before cutting to avoid additional shrinkage once the garment is sewn and pressed.
Ironing a garment or fabric. Always best to iron with the direction of the grain.
Sewing machine attachment that holds the material in place during the sewing process.
Padded mitt used to press areas of a garment where an iron can’t reach.
Piece of fabric used while pressing a garment to avoid shine marks on the right side of fashion fabric.
Pressure & Release brush stroke
A brush stroke technique used in fashion illustration. The process of applying pressure on the tip of the paint brush as you stroke and then releasing the pressure as you lift the brush off the paper. This technique covers the area with paint or ink and results in the pooling of paint or ink which adds depth to the illustration.
Presto Correction Pen
Tool used to make corrections to fashion drawings.
These hues cannot be attained by mixing other colors. Red, yellow and blue are the three pigment primary hues; red, blue and green are the three primary hues in light.
Any dress with fullness protruding in back from waist to hem.
Dress with vertical stylelines that on the front start at mid shoulder, go through the apex, continues straight down and end at the hem. On the back the princess line starts at mid shoulder, curves along the middle of the back and ends at the hem.
One piece bodice and sleeve garment, traditional to Japanese costume.
Stylelines that divide the middle of each panel of the front and back of a garment. Princess lines must transect the apex or be placed within 1″ of the apex for proper fit.
Seams of a princess line design.
A description of the color space of a printing or viewing device; a list of all the colors it can produce based on its system of primary hues. Because devices such as scanners and printers, and monitors, have different systems of primary hues, they have different profiles.
The net gains after cost of handling merchandise and operating expenses have been deducted. It is determined by subtracting the Operating Expenses from the Gross Margin.
Profit and Loss (P&L) Statement
A summary of the income and expenses of a business.
In the same area.
Short sleeve that is gathered at the top and at the bottom.
Short sleeve gathered, either at the armhole or at the cuff band or both, producing a rounded shape.
The Billed Cost of new goods during the period, minus any returns to or allowances from the vendor.
A discount offered to buyers when a specified quantity of goods is purchased. It is a percentage discount to be deducted from the billed cost when a predetermined quantity is purchased.
Two fabrics stitched together either by machine or by hand with a layer of batting in between to create a raised effect.
Clear plastic ruler with holes in the middle along the length of the ruler.
Also known as betweens needles. Quilting needles are shorter than sharps and have a small rounded eye for making fine stitches on medium to heavyweight fabrics. They are mostly used in tailoring and in quilting.
A result obtained by dividing one quantity by another.
Balance that is achieved by elements that start in the center and move out along a radius, like the spokes of a wheel.
The line measured from the center of a circle.
Stylized armhole that starts either at the neckline, the shoulder or at center front and ends below a traditional set-in sleeve armhole.
Sleeve that fits into raglan armhole.
Receipt of Goods Dating Retail Price
The price at which the stores offer merchandise for sale.
A coat belonging to an dress/coat ensemble.
Light waves bend and split up into their component parts when passing through a medium such as the lens of a prism. We call those component parts the seven spectral hues.
Relationship of hues
Several relationships exist as a result of the distance the hues are from each other on the color circle – for example, complements.
Slightly fitted coat matched to a dress to make an ensemble
Art that looks like real life objects.
Return on Investment (ROI)
A percentage of gain realized from an investment.
One of the most common types of dating; it allows the cash discount to be taken within a specified period (usually 10 days) of time from the date of invoice.
Refers to a lapel on a jacket, blouse, vest or coat.
A quality of sound that makes it seems to come from different locations, making the audio space bigger or smaller.
In music, how the beat sounds over time; how the sounds link to each other.
Single breasted jacket cut full at the hip for horseback riding or sometimes can be pleated in the back to add extra fullness.
Process of removing sewing stitches.
Photoreceptors in our retinas that allow us to see light and dark.
The line at which a collar turns over as in a roll collar.
Collar that sits high on the back neck and whose neck shape is a straighter line than that of a flat collar.
Extension of the sleeve which is folded up to form a turned-up cuff.
Tool used to flatten seams on leather and suede.
Rotary Blade Cutter
Cutting device used in combination with a cutting mat to cut fabric and paper.
Paint brush used in fashion illustration. Available in assorted sizes.
Nylon bag with straps fitting over shoulders so that it can be worn on the back
A stitch used to permanently close a seam or to hold down gathers and pleats.
Flat shoe with a 2 tone vamp or instep.
Casual belted jacket with either patch or bellows pockets on top and bottom.
Flat square-back collar tapering to a V in the front.
Bell bottom pants with double-breasted button front opening worn by U.S. Navy sailors.
Asymmetric wrap skirt with either side ties or other closure.
The intensity, brilliance or strength of a color as compared to gray. A saturated color has no gray in it.
Acronym for shoulder blade level.
Decorative edge mimicking the edges of a seashell.
Accessory used around the neck for warmth.
Two colors in the same visual space that seem to vibrate against each other.
Handled instrument with two opposing sharp blades for cutting paper and fabric. It is advisable to dedicate your scissors for cutting paper only, and not fabric, to maintain the sharpness of the blades.
Neckline shape that is low and curve and extends to the shoulders.
Amount of extra material that extends beyond the stitching line.
By-the-yard tape used to finish a hem or other raw edge of a garment. Also known as hem binding.
Choosing the appropriate seam finish for a particular fabric and style, to keep the seam edge from fraying.
Ruler with an adjustable tab used to mark areas of a garment such as buttonholes, pocket placement and hems.
Trimming seam allowances at different widths to eliminate bulk on the seam.
Sewing machine device used to measure the distance from the needle to the stitching line while sewing. Can be a machine attachment or the magnetic type that can be placed on top of the machine surface.
Tool used to open seams or rip out stitches.
Pocket that is placed in the seam of a garment. Also known as an inseam pocket.
These hues are obtained by mixing two primary hues together; they are green, orange and violet.
Secondary line of composition
The secondary line of composition has slightly less influence than the major line of composition.
Finished edges on fabric in the length or warp grain.
Semi Fitted Torso Sloper
Silhouette that is somewhat fitted to the body and ends at the end of the torso.
Leather skin with a small amount of surface treatment to obscure marks and blemishes.
Sleeve that sits within a natural armhole as compared with a sleeve that sits in a drop shoulder or stylized armhole.
Setting a Straight Sleeve
Process of gathering a sleeve’s cap and carefully mounting it to the armhole of a garment.
To join together by either hand or machine stitches.
A hue mixed with black.
Variations in color, such as in a leather or suede skin, or in a velvet or other pile fabric where the nap causes shading.
Type of button with an extra piece under the button cap that makes it easier to pass a button through a buttonhole. Thread shanks can be added to sew-through buttons to get the same effect.
Accessory used around the neck and upper body for warmth and style.
Collar that is cut in one piece or has a seam at center back that ends at the breakpoint of the front opening of garment.
Leather tanned with the hair left on and not sheared off.
Instrument with two opposing sharp blades for cutting fabric. Fabric shears are generally heavier with one handle bigger than the other for better balance when cutting through layers of fabric. It is advisable never to use your fabric shears for cutting paper as this will dull the blades.
Semi-fitted dress that gets its shape by waist dart or a French dart.
Sleeveless top that buttons in back.
The outside of the garment.
A trade discount expressed as a series of discounts. See trade discount.
In patternmaking, the process of shifting a pattern to another area on a pattern. For example when shifting a dart from neck to shoulder.
Dress that hangs straight from the underarm to the hem.
Running one or more stitches parallel to the other for the purpose of forming gathers. Three or more rows of gathers made by small running stitches in parallel lines.
Refers to the hem of a classic men’s shirt that is longer and curved at the bottom and higher at the sides.
Dress utilizing design details of a me’s classic tailored shirt.
Dress with top styled like a tailored shirt, usually buttoned from neck to waist and made with either a full or straight skirt.
When the physical inventory count is smaller than the book inventory indicates that it should be.
Short-handled blade tool used for cutting patterns out of leather skins on a special leather cutting board.
Short Shorts/Hot Pants
Shorts that end at the crotch line.
Shoulder Blade Level
Pants of any length cut to look like a skirt which hangs similar to a divided skirt
Objects used to add shape and structure to the shoulder of a garment. Made out of cotton or polyester, shoulder pads range in size and shape to fit the desired finished look of a particular design.
Distance between the neckline and the armhole.
Line on a dress form indicating the shoulder from neck to armhole ridge.
Acronym for shoulder seam.
Minor areas of interest that occur when visually obstructive colors, shapes, or borders break up the surface of the composition into sections.
Side Dart Bodice
Bodice with a dart emanating from the side seam to the apex.
Fabric folded in one direction and pressed flat creating a pleat.
Side of the body or the dress form.
The line or shape of a particular design.
Thin steel pins that are easily placed into silk and other fine, lightweight fabrics.
The effect that two colors have on each other when they are in the same visual space. All colors are perceived relative to the surrounding colors.
Six-Month Merchandise Plan
Projects the sales, inventory, and profit goals for a department or an entire store for six months.
Finish on fabric to give fabric added body.
Skeletal Profit and Loss Statement
A shortened form of the income statement.
The pelt of a small animal as compared to that of a hide which is a large animal.
Lower portion of a dress or a separate garment starting from the waist to above or below the knee or ankle.
The act of cutting into material to release it, as in releasing the neckline while draping or slashing into the waist when dropping a flare for a flare skirt.
Slash & Spread Method
Process used in patternmaking when adding fullness to a garment design such as slashing a sleeve sloper to create a puff sleeve.
Piece that is attached to the bottom to finish off a sleeve.
An small narrow ironing board used to iron sleeves and other areas of a garment.
Top portion of a sleeve that is gathered and then set into an armhole.
Narrow pad made of cotton or poly batting used to add shape and structure to a sleeve cap.
Piece of fabric that is attached to a slit to finish the sleeve.
A basic sleeve block that is made from body measurements and is the basis for all other sleeve stylizations.
Metal or plastic ornament that enables tabs on garments to adjust.
Backless shoe with a back strap to hold the shoe in place.
Straight or semi fitted dress with shoulder straps.
Basting two layers of fabric together using a slipstitch.
Hand stitch created by taking up one thread from the underside of the fabric, then slipping the needle through the folded edge of the hem to hide the stitch repeating the process to complete the hem.
Opening on a garment that adds movement such as on the side seam of a skirt, shorts, or jacket.
Basic pattern or block without seam allowances. Slopers can be developed from body measurements or by draping on a dress form.
Decorative gathered stitch often seen on ethnic peasant blouses, the tops of skirts and pants and on childrenswear blouses.
Formal styled jacket usually with velvet or satin collar either notch or shawl collared.
Prong and socket closure made of metal or plastic used in place of a button and buttonhole.
An open area of background in a 2-dimensional composition.
Two-toned flat shoe or pump made in contrasting colors of usually white and a contrasting color.
The seven hues that can be refracted from the white light of the sun (ROYGBIV).
Spectral reflectance curve
The wavelengths of light that are reflected by a color and not absorbed into it. It determines the spectral hue of the color.
An instrument that measures the light wavelengths that are absorbed into a surface of a material, to determine its color.
The two hues adjacent to the complement of a hue. For example, the complement of violet is yellow, but the split complements are red-yellow and green-yellow.
Shorts that stop above the knee with front and back inverted pleats made to look like a skirt.
To lay fabric out on a table.
The amount of distance on a men’s shirt between the collar points.
Patternmaking term that refers to creating a right angle at an intersection such as when trueing centerfront neckline and centerfront waistline.
Acronym for side seam.
A shape that feels steady and unwavering.
Three quarter length coat with a hood and toggle closure.
Collar with a neckband and collar attached.
A non-moving type of energy in a composition.
Material used to add stiffness and support to an area of a garment such as a plastic stay in the collar point of a shirt or a piece of web tape to support the shoulder of a knit top.
Machine or hand stitch used to control an area and keep it from stretching.
Elements with a graduating relationship that move the eye from one point to the next to help continuity within the composition.
Very high, high heel pump.
Stirrup Ski Pants
Pants with a piece of elastic or an all-in-one strap that goes under the foot to keep the pants in place.
Amount of stitches per inch for a given fabric. The tighter the fabric weave the closer the stitch length. For example for a fine silk charmeuse you need 12 snitches per inch while a bulky thick wool boucle would require 6-8 stitches per inch, as would leather.
An inconspicuous machine stitch placed next to a previously stitched seam to hold down another area of the garment such as on a waistband, a facing or when making a Hong Kong bound hem finish.
A method of inventory planning that examines the beginning of month stock to the net sales for that month.
The number of times that the average stock turns into net sales (i.e., is sold) during a given period of time.
In the natural direction of the weave, such as in line with the cross grain yarns or in line with the length grain yarns.
Straight Skirt Sloper
Skirt that hangs straight from the hip and acts as a basic bloc, without seam allowances, from which other skirt styles can be made.
Sleeve that is straight from the underarm to the wrist and acts as a basic block with out seam allowances.
Bodice that is shoulderless with added support, such as bones, that are inserted into the seam allowance to give structure.
Lines on a pattern or a drape that indicate the desired look and design of a garment.
By-the-yard tape with adhesive back used when designing and creating stylines on a dress form. Twill tape can also be used to create stylelines.
Mark placed on the dress form indicating a desired design point.
Tool used to true armholes and other curves areas on a pattern.
The element that is secondary to the main element in its influence in the composition. It is also known as sub-dominant or secondary.
The system of mixing pigments to obtain color.
Inside of a leather skin worn on the outside and made to have a soft, napped surface.
Sleeve that is slightly larger than a dress sleeve and that fits into the armhole of a set-in sleeve of a jacket.
Ink used for fashion illustrations when rendering with a brush.
Dress with shoulder straps that can be stylized to hang straight or flare or any other variation.
Surplice or Surplus Wrap
Asymmetric wrap dress or top that cinches at the side of the body.
Casual pants made of knit fabric worn for exercise.
The amount of area at the bottom of a skirt, top, pants or other area of a garment.
Neckline that is in the shape of a heart.
A mirror image from one side of a garment to the other.
Equality of parts on either side of a center line or point when the shapes and their sizes and locations are a mirror image of each other.
A “condition” in which a person experiences one sense through another sense, such as hearing a sound, but also seeing it in color.
Silhouette that is broad across the shoulder and column-like through the body.
Casual knit top with rib trim jewel neck and short sleeves.
Piece of material used to adjust a garment when combined with snaps, buttons or D-rings. Tabs are used on various areas of a garment such as on pant waistbands and jacket waists.
Temporary basting stitches that, when cut apart, leave threads that are useful to mark areas of a garment. Tailor tacks are often used won fabrics where a tracing wheel cannot be used such as fine fabrics and velvets.
Special removable chalk used for marking fabrics during the draping and sewing process.
Knot formed when looping two threads together at the same time and then pulling them with your fingers to form a knot.
Set-in sleeve with darts at the elbow.
Device with a sharp pointed hook at one end used in combination with a hoop when chainstitching and stringing beads onto a fabric.
Sleeveless top with a U or scooped neckline.
Process involved in converting a hide or skin into leather.
Device marked with units of measure in inches or centimeters used to measure in patternmaking and draping.
Package containing garment specifications and other pertinent details relating to the construction of a garment. Tech packs are compiled and then sent to the factory so that a prototype can be made.
Above the knee sleepwear garment similar to a long camisole but usually with lace trim.
Temperature of Color
A word used to describe whether a hue has red in it, or blue in it. Those with red in them are considered warm; those with blue in them are considered cool.
How fast or slow musical notes are played.
Potential energy, where colors and shapes scintillate, or vibrate against each other. Tension is the feeling that something is about to move.
Silhouette that flares away from the body and ends at the torso. It is used as a basic sloper or can also be stylized.
Coat that has a wide swing at the hem.
Dress that flares out away from the body with a wide bottom sweep.
These hues are the ones between the primary and secondary hues on the color circle.
Terms of Sale
Delivery and payment terms agreed upon between the buyer and the vendor.
A melody; a complete musical phrase or expression.
Metal or plastic tool used when hand-sewing to help protect the fingers and to push the sewing needle through the material.
Undergarment where the buttocks is exposed and the crotch covered.
Thin, twisted yarns available in different fibers, on a spool, used for sewing.
Number of yarns per inch in the warp and weft of a woven fabric.
A hand basting stitch used on a garment to mark hems, center lines, notches, stitching and button markings, in place of a tracing wheel and tracing paper.
Sleeve that ends a few inches below the elbow.
Part of the sewing machine below the needle that covers the machine teeth.
Men’s neck ornament worn under the collar of a men’s tailored shirt. To interlock or fasten as in a tie belt.
Layers of fabric, one larger than the other such as in a tired flounce skirt.
The sound quality of a note, related to the type of vibrations produced by the instrument; it is the difference in sound between various instruments.
A hue mixed with white.
Straight-lined skirt with a series of flounces cut in circular style, or on the straight of the material
A full muslin drape of a garment design that is ready for fitting.
A hue mixed with gray.
A stitch that accentuates the edge of a garment. Can be made by hand or by machine and is usually a longer than normal stitch made with either contrast, matching or silk thread to make the stitch more pronounced. Topstitching can range from close to the edge (edgestitch) to as much as 1″ away from the finished edge.
Slim fit pants ending below the knee in the style of Spanish bull fighters.
On a dress form, the area from the neck to the end of the form.
Transfer paper used in patternmaking and draping to copy lines when used with a tracing wheel.
Tool with serrated or pointed edges used in conjunction with tracing paper to transfer lines and marks in draping and patternmaking.
The percentage or a series of percentages deducted from the list price (i.e. the theoretical retail price recommended by the manufacturer). If expressed as series, e.g. 40%, 15%, 10%, they must be taken individually and in order.
A clear surface that transmits light through it.
A partially occluded surface that transmits diffused light through it.
Decorative quilting technique where a motif is outlined with filler between layers to create a raised effect.
Single or double-breasted belted coat with storm flaps, and epaulettes.
Three hues equidistant from each other on a color circle, such as the primary hues red, yellow and blue, or the secondary hues green, violet and orange.
Tricot Fusible Interfacing
Knitted support material with gummed adhesive backing used in areas of a garment for support.
To cut away as in seam allowance on a garment. A decorative detail such as ribbon, braid or piping.
Full length pants that are pleated or flat front.
The 45 degree angle of a fabric, where maximum stretch is sought.
In patternmaking and draping, a term that refers to connecting your lines to create a finished pattern.
Skirt that has a circular flounce at the bottom, resembling the end of a trumpet.
Small pleat that is caught in the seam adding ease and movement to a garment.
One piece 3/4 length garment worn over pants or a skirt.
Collar that is fitted at the neck, folds over itself and usually made out of knit fabric.
Formal pantsuit with a satin notched or shawl collar and stripe along the pant leg.
Selvage edge tape used for creating stylelines on a dress form or for other uses when sewing a garment such as a stay or as a trim.
Women’s blouse style with a twist at the front.
Two Piece Sleeve
A 2-part sleeve, with an under and an upper section used mostly in jackets where extra shape and ease are needed.
Scooped neckline that takes the shape of the letter “U.”
A machine stitch that holds seam allowances together on the underside portion of a garment and keeps it from showing on the right side such as on a facing or under collar.
Softly draped folds under the arm, achieved by cutting the fabric on bias.
Length of the sleeve from under arm to the sleeve hem.
Piece of bias strip inserted into the underarm to keep the underarm stabile.
Bottom or under collar patterned smaller than the top collar, depending on the thickness of the fabric, so that the edge of the under collar won’t show once the collar is set into the neckline.
Amount of desired material under a pleat.
Any material that is used under the fashion fabric for structure and support. Can be quilted, pressed on or hand-stitched in place.
Metal wire used to shape a bra cup.
Simple hand stitch that starts with one small stitch approximately 1/4″ long followed by another stitch 3/4″ long repeated and used to temporarily mark the center front of bodices, dresses, sleeves or any other areas on a garment where thread markings are needed.
A composition has unity when all the elements work together toward a common artistic goal.
Top portion of a collar.
Neckline that forms a “V” on the front. However, a garment can also have a “V” back design detail.
The lightness or darkness of a color. Black is the darkest of all colors, and therefore the lowest value possible. White is the highest value possible.
A range of achromatic values lined up in order from white to black.
Where a dart ends.
An imaginary and invisible line created by shapes in a composition, which determine the direction the eye moves.
A tape made up of 2 parts, loops and mesh, that when they adhere to each other form a closure that can be used in place of a snap, hook & eye or button & buttonhole.
Opening on a jacket, skirt, dress, blouse or pants to give movement.
Sleeveless button though garment ending a the waist and commonly worn underneath a suit jacket.
Visible light spectrum
The electromagnetic waves from the light of the sun that are visible to us; we see them as color.
A color’s strength and ability to stand out relative to the other colors is due to a combination of elements: the color’s size, location, color and shape. Visual weight lends an object power and strength, and the ability to attract enough attention to be the focal point.
A 3-dimensional shape; a form.
Dart that emanates from the waist and vanishes in the direction of the hip.
Tape that is at the middle of the dress form.
Line that is perpendicular to the sleeve center at the level of the wrist.
Shorts that end above the knee.
Refers to the lengthwise grain of a woven fabric.
An electromagnetic wave with a particular wavelength identifies each spectral hue.
Refers to the three most common types of fabric weave: plain weave, twill weave, satin weave.
Silhouette that is wide at the top and narrows at the bottom.
Refers to the crosswise grain of a woven fabric.
Tool that is used to hold down fabric or paper during draping, patternmaking or sewing.
A design detail that is mounted onto or into a seam such as a welt pocket on the breast pocket of a jacket, or on a coat.
Curved double welt pocket as seen on western shirts.
Small, close together stitches made over a fold as a decorative touch.
Type of cotton interfacing used in tailoring.
Pocket cut away at the top, usually in a curved manner, used on men’s western or continental trousers.
A stiff shirt collar with turned down points in front as seen on a men’s tuxedo dress shirt.
Acronym for waist level or waistline.
Fabric that is made through the interlacing of yarns either at a right angle to each other to create a plain weave, or in a combination diagonal weave to create a twill and satin weave.
Coat made without buttons that is closed with a belt or sash.
A ruler measuring 36 inches used in patternmaking and draping.
Separate section of a garment such as the piece across the top back of a men’s shirt, or at the front top of a Western shirt. Yokes can also be used on the tops of pants and skirts.
Device made of metal or plastic used as a closure such as on the front of pants, on the back of a dress or as a decorative effect.
Sewing machine attachment that aides in the process of inserting a zipper into a garment. They are available for both the left and right side stitching.